2 km FM transmitter

Description.
With a matching antenna, the FM transmitter circuit shown here can transmit signals up to a range of 2 kilo meters. The transistor Q1 and Q2 forms a classic high sensitive preamplifier stage. The audio signal to be transmitted is coupled to the base of Q1 through capacitor C2. R1, R3, R4, R6, R5 and R9 are the biasing resistors for the preamplifier stage comprising of Q1 and Q2. Transistor Q3 performs the collective job of oscillator, mixer and final power amplifier.C9 and L1 forms the tank circuit which is essential for creating oscillations. Inductor L2 couples the FM signal to the antenna.

Circuit diagram.

2km Fm transmitter
Notes.

  • Assemble the circuit on a good quality PCB.
  • The circuit can be powered from anything between 9 to 24V DC.
  • Inductor L3 can be a VK220J type RFC.
  • For L1 make 3 turns of 1mm enamelled copper wire on a 10mm diameter plastic former. On the same core make 2 turns of 1 mm enamelled copper wire close to L1 and that will be L2.
  • Frequency can be adjusted by varying C9.
  • R9 can be used to adjust the gain.
  • For optimum performance, value of C8 must be also adjusted.
  • Using a battery for powering the circuit will reduce noise.

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413 Responses to “2 km FM transmitter”

  • Tesfaye says:

    Hello everybody!
    I am Social Science graduate of Business Management. but i have special interest to build simple FM transmitter at home. but as i told you i do not have the basic knowledge. but i tried to read so many websites about how to build simple FM radio transmitter and i got some hints but not the basic one.

    I got difficulties to get answers related to the following questions.

    1, How can i know the voltage of parts used in any homemade FM transmitter? How can i get the exact voltage of parts used in any homemade FM transmitter? I mean how can i determine the voltage of parts used in any homemade FM transmitter? Is there any calculation used/applied to get the voltage of parts used.

    (For example, what are the voltage of each parts used in the above FM transmitter?)

    PLEASE, PLEASE, PLEASE give me some hint??? Waiting your response soon, very soon!!!

  • Achala Athukorala says:

    Does this circuit do actual FM transmission (Frequency Modulated Transmission) or else does it just amplify the amplitude of the input signal? I don’t see how it can do frequency modulation as it doesn’t have a carrier signal. Forgive me if I’m wrong.

  • utshab says:

    Which is correct process for designing L3?
    Seetharaman
    April 3, 2014 at 2:27 am
    L1 and L2 will be with 18SWG super enameled copper wire and for L3 use 28 SWG 250 turns on 6mm former 5mm width honeycomb winding.
    or
    seetharaman
    August 23, 2013 at 4:12 am

    Hi Naren you can use any RH Choke in this place. you can wind around 24 turns of 22swg enemelled copper close wound on 6mm dia self supporting, without any core material(air core)you can wind on a pencil slideout and use.

  • minu says:

    please suggest the size of the antenna

  • amir hassan says:

    Hi
    is C3, .022 MiroFarad electrolytic Correct?
    there is no such a small amount and electrolytic.

  • sathish says:

    Sir pls . I want this circut . where can I purchis this

  • kamya emmanuel says:

    what are some of the objective of constructing this transmitter?

  • thelearner says:

    can anyone tell me the purpose of C1 ,i just don’t understand how does it work.ths.

    • gajendra says:

      c1, can ground directly through a resistane they can absorb the ultrtas noise or ripples which are produs=ced by the feedback or other electro,agnetic wave present in the sarroundins….

  • kunle says:

    Can one use a uni-directional antenna?

  • Arumugam says:

    Sir i completed the circuit..and I have problem when i am going to touch inductor (L1) with my hands at the time i get the output with clear sound…when i released my hands i get only noisy output…..pls pls help me to get clear sound..

  • Msala says:

    Hi Seetharaman
    Could you please email me the detailed design, as in how you arrived at each of the component values. Thanks

  • naresh.ece says:

    I have finished every thing in the circuit except inductor L3,any one please tell me how to create L3.THEN I can finish my project.

  • razzel says:

    iwant to build this for my project ., did someone try to make one? iwant to know if its working.,

  • Victor says:

    Hi Seetharaman,
    Unfortunately, my project is unsuccessful as I can not get to work, no matter what I do. I’ve done my best, so I’ve decided to finish it up now.

  • victor says:

    Hi Seetharaman
    is it possible for me to use a smaller diameter wire for l1 and l2?

  • Victor says:

    Hi Seetharaman,
    I did some research and came across this:

    Carbon film
    A carbon film is deposited on an insulating substrate, and a helix cut in it to create a long,
    narrow resistive path. Varying shapes, coupled with the resistivity of amorphous carbon can
    provide a variety of resistances. Carbon film resistors are available in a power rating range of
    0.125 W to 3 W at 70 °C. Resistances available range from 1 Ohm to 10 MegOhm. The
    carbon film resistor has an operating temperature range of -55 °C to 155 °C. Maximum
    working voltages from 200 to 600 Volt DC. Due to the spiral cut nature of the resistance
    element Carbon Film Resistors are not suitable for use in radio frequency circuits as they
    exhibit high internal inductance.

    http://www.philipstorr.id.au/radio/technical/Resistors.pdf

    Just thought you would like to know.

  • Sabin says:

    i have searched L3(VK220J type RFC) for more than 2 months in many shop but i didnt found.. i think its very rear, can you suggest me that where i can find it.. or can we make it by simply turning piece of wire like L1 and L2.. plz give me best advice anyone.

    • Victor says:

      Seetharaman
      April 3, 2014 at 2:27 am
      L1 and L2 will be with 18SWG super enameled copper wire and for L3 use 28 SWG 250 turns on 6mm former 5mm width honeycomb winding.

  • victor says:

    Hi Seetharaman,
    Ive put in the proper transistor, but now R12 is smoking and burning. Ive tried 0.5 and 1 watt resistors but they still burn. How many watts is R12 supposed to dissipate?

    • Seetharaman says:

      Hi Victor it should be 5 watt carbon / 100 ohms 2 watt carbon 2nos in parallel or non inductive wire wound 5 watts resistance, for 24volts operation of the circuit. for 9 volt operation it should be 1/2 watt.

  • Victor says:

    I think I’ve gotten hold of some 2N2219A trasistors in the TO-5 case from ebay.
    http://www.ebay.com.au/itm/4x-2N2219A-NPN-Transistor-/400645038617?pt=AU_B_I_Electrical_Test_Equipment&hash=item5d484e2219&_uhb=1
    Just one question about them- will they need to be attached to any heat sink, or are they fine on their own?
    Also I’m starting to get worried about my other transistors as they are all replacements. However, they both stay completely cool. Could you please tell me if they are fine?
    BC549 replaced the BC109
    http://www.jaycar.com.au/productView.asp?ID=ZT2156
    BC557 replaced the BC177
    http://www.jaycar.com.au/productView.asp?ID=ZT2164
    Sorry for being so much trouble, and thank you in advance.

  • gajmer says:

    any npn transistor can be used but one should maintain the frequency and battery power

  • Victor says:

    Hi, I’ve have made the circuit but it is not working and I have a suspicion that its either the transistor or the variable capacitors.

    For Q3, I couldn’t find the exact transistor, so I switched the 2N2219 for the BC337 NPN Transistor. Problem is, it gets so hot that I can’t touch it, though it doesn’t smoke or burn or anything. Do you think there is a problem here?

    Also, where did you buy capacitors for C8 and C9? If you bought it online could you please give me the link? The ones I bought are so dodgy.

    PS: I’m doing my major project for the HSC and this is very important for me.
    Thank you in advance.

  • Physics guy says:

    I rebuild this circuit. Very high power output, medium sound quality, super sensitive amplifier and less parts: I like it! Tip: Use cooling for Q3 (someting like a small metall strip,… Dipol antenna works best for this!

  • ASHIQ HUSSAIN says:

    hello sir what type of antena should be used for this circuit please send a mail, images of this antena with detail

    • Physics guy says:

      Hi there! Im not the admin here, but I guess U can use a dipole antenna for frequency around 100MHz. Take a long pipe of wood/ plasic. Cut two copper wires with a lenght around 75cm. Then attach them to the pipe, so all in all the lenght should be 150cm. Solder the inner ends to a coaxial cable, one to the coat, and one to the core. Then solder a antenna plug,… to the other ends. It should look like this: ~| (~=cable; |= stick with copper wire) If you need more info, google “dipole antenna”

    • Jimmy says:

      the biggest whip antenna possible, maybe twenty feet and dont forget the loading coil. (sheesh)

  • Narayan says:

    Hi- Are there any altranative transitor can be used for 2N2219. Can I use BF494 as the susbstitue – thanks

  • Pare Wires is a manufacturing industry which started as a small unit of manufacturing copper wires and cables like car wiring harness, coiled cords, Instrumentation signal cable, Coaxial cables, Telecommunication cable, Electrical wires, Automotive wires cables, PVC wires and cable manufacture and suppliers in Bangalore India.

  • Dean says:

    Thanks for the cct. Can you please upload a picture of the final pcb with tracks on it

  • Sir this ckt alrady redimade in which city and which on shope plz tell me. i want to this type ckt making in my home

  • suman says:

    sir, i am doing electrical and electronics engineering last year.
    plz give the swg number of l1, l2 ,l3???
    thanx.
    i have made the rest of the circuit except inductance. plz help me.

    • Seetharaman says:

      L1 and L2 will be with 18SWG super enameled copper wire and for L3 use 28 SWG 250 turns on 6mm former 5mm width honeycomb winding.

  • Suprovo says:

    Hello Sir, is this circuit has really more than 1 km range with good quality sound and very low noise?i tried many different 2km FM transmitter circuit on internet but all of those can not go even 150 meter and also full of noise.so i am afraid.PLEASE HELP ME TO INFORM ME ABOUT THIS CIRCUIT…

  • panneerselvam says:

    L3 how many turns the coil which frency deital the mail please

  • Gaju jayebhaye says:

    Hell sir, how making the 2km fm transmiter and this circut in whiche components are used , they components availebal in which city on shope plz list of components and designe the circuit send the data in pdf format

  • mahes says:

    pls explain the detail operation of the circuit

  • lubinga fred says:

    would you also post the receiver circuit for the 2km transmitter

  • Sam says:

    Would u pls post the receiver circuit for this fm transmitter 2km…

  • Shane says:

    Hello Sir, I have gone through the Long Range FM Transmitter project also.
    I want to know whether this one or the long range one works better.

  • sohail says:

    can we receive fm signal transmitted by fm transmitter from our mobile…..?

  • Rex says:

    Seetharaman, i want to build this transmitter but i want to know if it is working, is it working?

    • Ashiq bhat says:

      yes it really 100% works it depends upon the circuit designer if he/she design it well it will work well

  • R. Naren says:

    what should be done in L3

    • seetharaman says:

      Hi Naren you can use any RH Choke in this place. you can wind around 24 turns of 22swg enemelled copper close wound on 6mm dia self supporting, without any core material(air core)you can wind on a pencil slideout and use.

  • R. Naren says:

    hi sir iam naren how many turns should be used for the inductor L3. pls reply me soon

  • hi sir ,i js wanna knw the final power for he transistor Q3,and the inductance value do i hv to calculate it using resonances ???

  • I need 2 make ths circuit but I want to kno z volts for each capacitors so help me out guys

  • laxman rawat says:

    SIR I AM LAXMAN I WANT MAKE A 2KM FM TRANSMITTER . I HAVE SEEN THE CIRCUIT BUT I AM NOT UNDERSTAND WHAT IS L3 THIS IS A COIL AND WHAT IS C9 40PF AND C815PF .THESE ARE PRE SET THIS IS AVALIABLE IN MARKET AND WHAT IS CALL IN MARKET .

    • shubham says:

      go get a life…if you don’t know about capacitor and coil how u will develop these things…get thorough knowledge on capacitor and inductor then start doing FM-transmitter

    • Manish h says:

      Actually Laxma,C9 and C8 are the Variable capacitors which you can buy in electric stores….Difficult to find in Local Markets But sure you can buy that online..

  • krishna says:

    so pl give me rply as earlier as possible there by i can start my project

  • krishna says:

    i want make an FM in my clg so pl give complete details about Fm making and the components required and procedure to do this process

  • Raphael Muhoro says:

    Hae its me again,is there something i can do to the circuit to increase that radius.And also i would like to knw the approximate cost of making the whole circuit.Thank you

  • sushil says:

    Seetharaman sir, I have made L1 L2 couple inductor bt my circuit does not give any output. would u plz upload the photo of this couple inductor?

  • Aahwin says:

    Does this transmitted signal can be recieved by common fm radio?

  • sushil says:

    would u plz explain abt L3 inductor?
    is it aircore?
    inductance value=???uH
    no. of turn=???
    coil diameter =???

    abt L1 & L2 ?
    is it aircore?
    wht distance should be between L1 & L2?
    no.of turn =???

    • Seetharaman says:

      Hi Sushil see the notes it is clearly given how to wind L1 & L2. for rf choke L3 you can use any RF choke from market in 100 to 500uH range.

      • sushil says:

        wht is plastic former? is it hollow tube or solid tube? can I use marker pen which is hollow tube? why L3 is used here? what does it do? what happened if I remove this L3 part?

        • Seetharaman says:

          Hi Sushil you can use any hollow tube even pvc electric conduit. marker pen etc etc without any metal in them. L3 is an RF choke it is a must.

          • masthan says:

            hi this is masthan. pls help me what is the triangular symbol enclosed in a circle in receiver circuit. and the symbol of 4.7uf left to it? will you explain pls…..

  • Raphael says:

    I like that circuit diagram but please tell us what type of receiver is required for reception of the waves.

  • lukesh says:

    hi sir im using part is
    15uf place in 22uf
    0.033uf in 333
    0.022 in 203
    0.47uf in 474
    1000pf in 102
    40pf in 39pf
    and vk 220j in 2 torn 1mm copper wire

    other is on the your droing list bot i can not proved -ve triminnal plz send me solution. this is right or not right please healp me.

    • Seetharaman says:

      The negative of the supply should be connected to common line shown as connected to ground. All your components are ok except choke. See my earlier comment.
      (Hi venkatesh it is an rf choke to prevent rf entering the audio amp stage through power supply. any choke around 200 to 500uH will do. it is normally aircored with 200 to 300 turns honey comb winding to 5mm width with an ID of 6 to 10mm.)

  • sushil says:

    can I used fixed capacitor c8 & c9 bcoz I donot found trimmer capacitor. how can I increase range of this transmitter?

    • Seetharaman says:

      Hi Sushil you can try 5.6PF for C8 and 22PF for C9. To get the right frequency you may compress or expand the tank coil L1. (that is increasing / decreasing the gap between winding)

  • ricco yabes says:

    Hi can you explain how L1 will couple the signal to L2. It wasnt quite clear, can u send a video or picture on how to make the coils and their connection. Thanks

  • ISAAC ANTWI says:

    i need power invertor with 2000w and opportunity from your there

  • san says:

    details are not enough….

  • winston says:

    frequency equation pliz

  • lukes says:

    what is idea of Vk220J to made

  • mj says:

    hello sir,could u please tell me which electronic componemt is used to generate frequency like remote controlled cars,fm transmitters,nd what we have to do to increase the frequency range

  • I’m so excited to see this today and I’m moving right away to implement it. I will get back to you. Thanks to circuitstoday.

  • sushil says:

    what is c8 & c9? is it gang capacitor. I have gang capacitor bt it has 4 terminal. how to use it, i don’t know.

    • Seetharaman says:

      No, they are individual trimming capacitors. C8 for making the circuit to oscillate. C9 is for tuning to the required frequency of transmission.

  • sushil says:

    can I used dipole antenna for transmission?

  • Mercle says:

    and can i reduce the transistor number by using LM386 or any thing else ??
    is there any smd LM’s

  • Mercle says:

    can you please convert it to SMD please what are the value how can i convert it to SMD

  • salut says:

    you can send me the simulation of this transmitter in isis or workbensh or pspice
    thank you in advance

  • SONIA BHATIA says:

    Pls tell me how to connect the antenna to the coil?
    As antenna has only one terminal..would the other end of the coil l2 end up in the ground?
    PLS REPLY!

  • Rafn says:

    Would also love full details of all components. You have many great schematics but should also have full detail lists with them

  • anshad says:

    sir;
    please give me the full details of the components used in this ckt.

  • sam says:

    sir i want to find out the values of all componant. . Can u give me releted formule for this .and tecnique how to find that. . Plz reply me its imp for me

  • Bilal says:

    use 350uH inductor instead of VK220J type RFC….

  • Allah says:

    So how many of my middle eastern children are using this circuit for IEDs I wonder?

  • BetaRajab says:

    hi i am BetaRajab,
    i appreciate the circuit..i really like the range
    my problem is i cant find some of the components to finish my projects.
    these are..
    capacitors- 1000pF,0.033uF,0.022uF,15uF,40pF(trimmer)
    transistor-2N2219..
    also the type of antenna to be used.

    can you help with the voltages of each component..and if possible the equivalent components of each mentioned above in case i cant find them in my area..

    PLEASE HELP!!

  • Tarek says:

    Hello seethamaran, can you please tell me why the antenna has two connections to the circuit and wether the “ground” indications mean directly to the negative line. Thanks.

  • Alex says:

    I like it. Much Appreciation

  • Md Adnan ilahi says:

    how to set component in any circuits

  • Md Adnan ilahi says:

    hi i’m adnan
    i want to know that how to use different-2 componen or device in any circuits ?

  • Md sabrej says:

    i want sir how i increase the capacity of transmitar.

  • piyush rawat says:

    sir,
    which factor decides the range of fm tranmitter.?

  • sumanth says:

    hi sir,
    can we use any ferrite RF Choke instead of vk200j

  • Pushpender says:

    Sir plz u cn explain how to l1 and l2 r connected??????plz rply me sir

  • Anees says:

    Sir i want to know more about that VK220J type RFC.what is this .is it a coil?

  • Salami AZEEZ Adeyemi (S'Baz - Propose Engineer) says:

    I have successfully made the transmitter and I want to say a big thank you to you….. I now want another help from you in making a long distance (above 3km in distance)…. Please help me send the detail to my e-mail address…. salami_azeez0619@yahoo.com …… Please

  • what is the power rating of the 2km transmitter? is there a way i can calculate the power using the componenet ratings?

  • I have worked on 100meters fm transmitter, but i will try this 2000meters.But what kind of antenna should i use? can i use the normal unidirectional antenna?

  • eshwar says:

    what are the values of c9 &c8 capacitors for 99mhz fm output?

    • Andrew says:

      The reason they are adjustable is because according to tolerance differences in ALL of the components you will need to fine tune these two to get the frequency you want. The best way to get the frequency you want is to attach an easily identifiable audio source and set your receiver to the desired frequency. Adjust c9 until you start receiving.

  • Crazy Guy says:

    Hello Sirz, I am crazy guy. I cannot get range to neighboring village of Kazadh-Bhi-Srinivas. What capacitor needs to make 4.9 TeraHertz frequency?

    Please explain all electrical concepts of life and universe. Also, please to post schematic of 50″ LCD TV with 3D effex.

  • Jean Elvis Lagaillarde says:

    please tell me more about the vk220j and where can i buy it

  • Appah Evans says:

    PLEASE IAM ELECTRONIC MAN AND I WANT TODO ANOTHER ELECTRONIC SCHOOL IN OUTSIDE COUNTRY . HES OF IAM FROM POOR FAMILY AND I NEED A COMPANY TO HELP ME AFTER ERITREAN I WILL WORK FOR THE COMPANY.

  • deepak champati says:

    iwant to make a small radio station, that 1 transmit the song and 50 reciver can recive the song. can any one help me

  • mazhar f.sathliya says:

    mazhar
    Hi Sir ….
    My rikavayamenta f. M the transmitter and 2 from
    5 km’s and Anne F.M phikvensi. radio
    The phikvensi should be separate from …
    Do you have a circuit that I receive phikvensi of the person
    I’m just so it can be heard …
    About 500 to 700 homes in the
    I speak only of which can be heard in the house …
    mazhar f sathliya-gujarat-dahod-+919227100786

  • imunna says:

    I need a 25watt fm transmitter. Can anyone give me a ready made fm transmitter. I’ll pay for it, just i want to buy a fm transmitter of 25 watt. I’m from bangladesh. My phone number:+8801719974170, email: imtiaz2580@yahoo.com
    please help me.

  • fausitine says:

    first of all i would like to thanx 4 ua various circuit that help us to learn more electronic knowledges.
    i expect to build about 50m fm transmitter of few components, kindly help please,,,,,,,,,,,
    by faustine from Dar es salaam Institute of Technology (DIT)

  • ABDUL WAJID says:

    Sir, where I going to connect the L2 terminals/antenna to the circuit diagram? please reply, I am very much excited to create this project, Thank you… please reply to my email address: roygee30@yahoo.com.

  • shah alam says:

    hy…..
    i can not found bc177 have it any exchange transistor. if any 1 know it please send me information please pls…….

  • Seetharaman says:

    Hi ad tune an FM receiver to 89MHz. Adjust C9 trimmer to get the carrier ine the receiver. (use nonmagnetic screw driver for adjustment best is an ebonite rod)

  • ad says:

    how con i make exact frequency of 89mhz

  • sk says:

    sir can u provide pcb circuit diagram of 2km fm transmitter

  • Yakubu Bano jnr. says:

    I want to construct the 2km fm transmitter as my project, but i want to change one of the BJT with either of the other transistors, how can i do that?

  • arun says:

    what is equivalent of 2n2219