Resistivity and Electrical Conductivity – The Complete Guide

jojo September 27, 2017 2 Comments
Ultimate Guide on Resistivity and Electrical Conductivity We know what the electric wires are made of; they are either made of copper or aluminum. We also know that Gold and Silver would have been a better choice, had they been cheaper. However, the question is what makes them suitable for the same? Why don’t we see lead wires? The answer lies in the very basic property of these materials, namely their resistivity and electrical conductivity. This article explains the...
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Resistor Color Code Chart – Understanding Resistance Color Coding

jojo March 20, 2014 2 Comments
“Color coding” is used in electronics to identify between different components. In the case of resistors, color coding is used to identify a specific resistance value, for example a 100 ohms resistor or a 1 kilo ohms resistor with 5% tolerance. Electronic components like resistors are very small in size and its difficult to print its value directly on to the component surface. Hence a standard was formed in 1920 by then Radio Manufacturers Association (now part of EIA...
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Pulse Width Modulation – What is it?

Anish August 17, 2013 6 Comments
The good definition of Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) is in the name itself. It means modulating/varying the width of the pulse (Not the frequency). To best understand what PWM is, let us first see some basic terminologies. Microcontrollers are intelligent digital components which live on binary signals. Best representation of a binary signal is a square wave. The following diagram explains the basic terminologies associated with a square wave signal. As the shown in the above diagram, the important...
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PN Junction Diode Characteristics – Explained in Detail with Graphs

jojo July 21, 2018 68 Comments
In this article, we learn about PN junction diode characteristics in detail – like how to bias a PN junction (Forward & Reverse bias methods), behavior of PN junction during forward & reverse bias setups, how to plot the VI characteristics, what is reverse breakdown and many other essential concepts regarding a PN junction diode. So let’s begin. In chapter 1 – Understanding the PN junction , we have seen how a PN junction is formed from a p-type...
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Understanding the PN Junction

jojo July 21, 2014 31 Comments
Whenever someone decides to learn electronics, the first question that comes to his mind may be – “Where shall I begin?“. I would say, one shall begin at a junction 😉 the “pn junction“. We know semiconductor devices like transistors and diodes are the basic building units of any equipment that involves electronics, say tablet computers to the sophisticated MRI machines! How these basic units like transistors and diodes are formed ? or how are they made ? The...
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IC Voltage Regulators

jojo July 7, 2014 7 Comments
A voltage regulator is one of the most widely used electronic circuitry in any device. A regulated voltage (without fluctuations & noise levels) is very important for the smooth functioning of many digital electronic devices. A common case is with micro controllers, where a smooth regulated input voltage must be supplied for the micro controller to function smoothly. You may also like this article on Regulated Power Supply Voltage regulators are of different types. In this article, our interest...
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PN junction breakdown characteristics

jojo December 19, 2013 14 Comments
In this article, we are going to learn a little deep about break down characteristics of PN Junction Diode and how “reverse break down” characteristics is put into practical applications. Before getting into the details, lets have a walk through our previous articles. 1. Understanding the PN Junction – is a great article to begin your learning curve about pn junction. In this article, we have clearly explained what is a pn junction and how is it formed. 2....
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