Archive for the ‘Digital Electronics’ Category

Pulse Width Modulation – What is it?

The good definition of Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) is in the name itself. It means modulating/varying the width of the pulse (Not the frequency). To best understand what PWM is, let us first see some basic terminologies. Microcontrollers are intelligent digital components which live on binary signals. Best representation of a binary signal is a square wave. The following diagram explains the basic terminologies associated with a square wave signal. As the shown in the above diagram, the important thing to note in a PWM signal is that the time-period and hence the frequency is always fixed. Only the ON…

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Half adder

Half adder circuit. To understand what is a half adder you need to know what is an adder first. Adder circuit is a combinational digital circuit that is used for adding two numbers. A typical adder circuit produces a sum bit (denoted by S) and a carry bit (denoted by C) as the output. Typically adders are realized  for adding binary numbers but they can be also realized  for adding other formats like BCD (binary coded decimal, XS-3 etc. Besides addition, adder circuits can be used for a lot of other applications in digital electronics like address decoding, table index…

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Ripple carry adder

Ripple carry adder circuit. Multiple full adder circuits can be cascaded in parallel to add an N-bit number. For an N- bit parallel adder, there must be N number of full adder circuits. A ripple carry adder is a logic circuit in which the carry-out of each full adder is the carry in of the succeeding next most significant full adder. It is called a ripple carry adder because each carry bit gets rippled into the next  stage. In a ripple carry adder the sum and carry out bits of any half adder stage is not valid until the carry in of…

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Flip Flop Conversion

For the conversion of one flip flop to another, a combinational circuit has to be designed first. If a JK Flip Flop is required, the inputs are given to the combinational circuit and the output of the combinational circuit is connected to the inputs of the actual flip flop. Thus, the output of the actual flip flop is the output of the required flip flop. In this post, the following flip flop conversions will be explained. SR Flip Flop to JK Flip Flop JK Flip Flop to SR Flip Flop SR Flip Flop to D Flip Flop D Flip Flop…

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Implement Logic Gates

To know the basics of Logic Gates and their applications, click on the links below. TAKE A LOOK : LOGIC GATES TAKE A LOOK : HALF ADDER AND FULL ADDER TAKE A LOOK : FLIP FLOPS With the invention of Logic gates, we can design electronic circuits that can simply work as a calculator to high end devices that can be even used for scientific purposes. Earlier only humans could add and subtract numbers. But with the applications of Boolean gates like Adders, Subtractors, Counters and so on it is possible to create almost any logic. With this post, we…

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Master-Slave Flip Flop Circuit

Before knowing more about the master-slave flip flop you have to know more on the basics of a J-K flip flop and S-R flip flop. To know more about the flip flops, click on the link below. TAKE A LOOK : FLIP FLOPS TAKE A LOOK : TRIGGERING OF FLIP FLOPS Master-slave flip flop is designed using two separate flip flops. Out of these, one acts as the master and the other as a slave. The figure of a master-slave J-K flip flop is shown below. From the above figure you can see that both the J-K flip flops are…

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Triggering of Flip Flops

Flip Flop – Triggering Methods This article explains the basic pulse triggering methods like HIGH Level Triggering, LOW Level Triggering, POSITIVE edge triggering and NEGATIVE edge triggering with the help of symbolic representation. The basic principle of clock pulse transition is also explained. To know the basics of flip flops and its different types click on the link below. TAKE A LOOK : FLIP FLOPS TAKE A LOOK : HALF ADDER AND FULL ADDER TAKE A LOOK : MASTER-SLAVE FLIP FLOP CIRCUIT After going through my post on flip flop, you must have understood the importance of triggering a flip…

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Flip Flops

Basic Flip Flops This article deals with the basic flip flop circuits like S-R Flip Flop, J-K Flip Flop, D Flip Flop, and T Flip Flop along with truth tables and their corresponding circuit symbols. Before going to the topic it is important that you get knowledge of its basics. Click on the links below for more information. TAKE A LOOK : BOOLEAN LOGIC TAKE A LOOK : LOGIC GATES TAKE A LOOK : HALF ADDER AND FULL ADDER Flip flops are actually an application of logic gates. With the help of Boolean logic you can create memory with them….

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Half Adder and Full Adder

Half Adder and Full Adder Circuit Half Adder and Full Adder circuits is explained with their truth tables in this article. Design of Full Adder using Half Adder circuit is also shown.Single-bit Full Adder circuit and Multi-bit addition using Full Adder is also shown. Before going into this subject, it is very important to know about Boolean Logic and Logic Gates. TAKE A LOOK : BOOLEAN LOGIC TAKE A LOOK : LOGIC GATES TAKE A LOOK : FLIP FLOPS Half Adder With the help of half adder, we can design circuits that are capable of performing simple addition with the…

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Logic Gates

Digital Logic Gates This article explains the basic logic gates like NOT Gate, AND Gate, OR Gate, NAND Gate, NOR Gate, EXOR Gate and EXNOR gate with their corresponding truth tables and circuit symbols. Logic Gates are considered to be the basics of Boolean Logic. To know more about Boolean Logic click on the link below. TAKE A LOOK : BOOLEAN LOGIC To know about the application of logic gates, click on the links below TAKE A LOOK : HALF ADDER AND FULL ADDER TAKE A LOOK : FLIP FLOPS There are mainly 7 types of logic gates that are…

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