PLL-Phase Locked Loops

jojo January 23, 2018 9 Comments
Phase Locked Loops (PLL) Introduction to PLL The concept of Phase Locked Loops (PLL) first emerged in the early 1930’s.But the technology was not developed as it now, the cost factor for developing this technology was very high. Since the advancement in the field of integrated circuits, PLL has become one of the main building blocks in the electronics technology. In present, the PLL is available as a single IC in the SE/NE560 series (560, 561, 562, 564, 565...
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MOS (Metal Oxide Semiconductor) IC’s

jojo March 31, 2014 1 Comment
We have already explained in integrated circuits, Hybrid IC’s about the classification of IC’s as bipolar IC’s and Unipolar IC’s. In bipolar IC’s, devices like BJT’s are used. In unipolar IC’s, devices like Field Effect Transistors are used. Metal oxide semiconductor IC (MOS IC) based on MOSFET structure have found wide applications in the digital field. Here are some comparisons and advantages over bipolar IC’s. 1. Reduction in size MOS IC’s are more suitable than bipolar IC’s I applications...
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Integrated Transistor Amplifier

jojo May 21, 2014 3 Comments
Related Articles Integrated Circuits (IC) – Concept, Classification and Advantages Integrated Circuits-Merits and Demerits Classification of Integrated Circuits Monolithic IC Monolithic IC Manufacturing Process Monolithic IC-Component Fabrication How to make an integrated transistor amplifier ? We have already learnt about the basics of integrated circuits, Monolithic IC manufacturing process and its fabrication. In this post we are going to illustrate how a complete transistor amplifier circuit including bias resistors can be formed on a silicon wafer using photolithographic process....
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IC Packages

jojo May 21, 2014 No Comments
Related Articles Integrated Circuits (IC) – Concept, Classification and Advantages Integrated Circuits-Merits and Demerits Classification of Integrated Circuits Monolithic IC Monolithic IC Manufacturing Process Monolithic IC-Component Fabrication Types of IC Packages For the protection of ICs from external environment and to provide mechanical protection and terminals for electrical connections, various types of packages are used. Several standard packages in general use are shown in figure. The metal can type of container provides electromagnetic shielding for the IC chip which...
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Monolithic IC-Component Fabrication

jojo May 21, 2014 1 Comment
The outstanding feature of an IC is that it comprises a number of circuit elements insepa¬rably associated in a single small package to perform a complete electronic circuit. We shall now see how various circuit elements (such as transistors, diodes, resistors etc.) can be fabricated in an IC form. 1.    Transistors   and   Diodes. Transistors and diodes are usually formed using the epitaxial planar diffusion process described in previous blog post. Collector, base, and emitter regions are...
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Monolithic IC Manufacturing Process

jojo May 21, 2014 2 Comments
Related Articles Integrated Circuits (IC) – Concept, Classification and Advantages Classification of Integrated Circuits Integrated Circuits-Merits and Demerits Monolithic IC Monolithic IC-Component Fabrication IC Packages Production Process of Monolithic IC’s A monolithic IC is one in which all circuit components and their inter-connections are formed on a single thin wafer, called the substrate. The basic production processes for the monolithic ICs are given below : Monolithic IC Manufacturing Process 1. P-Substrate. As already mentioned in the previous article, it...
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Monolithic IC

jojo May 21, 2014 1 Comment
Related Articles Integrated Circuits (IC) – Concept, Classification and Advantages Integrated Circuits-Merits and Demerits Classification of Integrated Circuits Monolithic IC Manufacturing Process Monolithic IC-Component Fabrication IC Packages Monolithic IC’s We have already discussed the basics of Integrated Circuits in our previous post. The concepts of a basic monolithic IC will be discussed here. To know the basics a sample circuit must be considered to be converted to its monolithic form. With basic components like resistor, diode, and transistor a...
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Classification of Integrated Circuits

jojo May 21, 2014 2 Comments
Related Articles Integrated Circuits (IC) – Concept, Classification and Advantages Integrated Circuits-Merits and Demerits Monolithic IC Monolithic IC Manufacturing Process Monolithic IC-Component Fabrication IC Packages An integrated circuit (IC) consists of several interconnected transistors, resistors, capaci­tors etc., all contained in one small package with external connecting terminals. The circuit may be entirely self-contained, requiring only input and output connections and supply voltage to function. Alternatively, a few external components may have to be connected to make the circuit operative....
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Integrated Circuits-Merits and Demerits

jojo May 21, 2014 2 Comments
Related Articles Integrated Circuits (IC) – Concept, Classification and Advantages Classification of Integrated Circuits  Monolithic IC  Monolithic IC Manufacturing Process Monolithic IC-Component Fabrication  IC Packages Merits or Advantages of Integrated Circuits The integrated circuits offer a number of advantages over those made by interconnecting discrete components. These are summarized as follows: 1.Extremely small size—thousands times smaller than discrete circuit. It is because of fabrication of various circuit elements in a single chip of semi-conductor mate¬rial. 2.Very small weight owing...
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Integrated Circuits (IC) – Concept, Classification and Advantages

jojo May 21, 2014 6 Comments
Related Articles Integrated Circuits-Merits and Demerits Classification of Integrated Circuits  Monolithic IC  Monolithic IC Manufacturing Process Monolithic IC-Component Fabrication  IC Packages Integrated Circuits (IC’s) The concept of IC was first introduced in the year 1958. Since then this concept has reached great technological heights than any other concepts and has helped in the miniaturization of a lot of components like mobiles, computers, laptops, and many more devices in the digital world. The digital era started with the invention of...
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