UJT RELAXATION OSCILATOR

admin January 18, 2011 15 Comments
AIM To design and setup a UJT relaxation oscillator. COMPONENTS AND EQUIPMENTS NEEDED 1. UJT (2N2446) 2. Resistors 3. Capacitor 4. CRO 4. DC power supply CIRCUIT DIAGRAM DESIGN Take Vp= 10 V and f =1 KHZ Vp= η VBB+ Vd (Vd can be neglected) VBB=15V (Assume η = 0.62) From data sheet valley point specifications are Vv=1.5 V and Iv =4 mA and Ip= 5 mA Combination of R2 and R4 is indicated as R. R max= (VBB-Vp)/Ip...
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UJT CHARACTERISTICS

admin January 18, 2011 8 Comments
AIM  To plot the characteristics of UJT (2N 2446) and to determine the intrinsic stand off ratio from the graph.   COMPONENTS AND EQUIPMENTS REQUIRED   1. UJT 2. Resistors 3. Voltmeter 4. Ammeter 5. Rheostat 6. Power supply   CIRCUIT DIAGRAM                                                                                                                              EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT OF UJT     THEORY          UJT is the Uni Junction Transistor. It is a three terminal device. They are: a) emitter     b) base1  c)base2.The equalent circuit is shown with the circuit...
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COMMON EMITTER CHARECTERISTICS OF NPN TRANSISTOR

admin January 18, 2011 1 Comment
AIM    To plot the characteristics of BC 107 transistor and to find 1. Dynamic input resistance 2. Dynamic output resistance 3. Common emitter current gain   COMPONENTS AND EQUIPMENTS NEEDED   1. Transistor 2. Variable power supplies 3. Resistors 4. Voltmeters 5. Ammeters   CIRCUIT DIAGRAM THEORY            A transistor is a 3 terminal device. It can be considered as the combination of two diodes. In a transistor there are 3 regions: 1.emitter 2.base 3.Collector. In an npn...
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RC INTEGRATOR AND DIFFERENTIATOR

admin January 18, 2011 13 Comments
AIM  To design and setup an RC integrator and differentiator circuits   COMPONENTS AND EQUIPMENTS REQUIRED 1. Capacitors 2. Resistors 3. Signal generator 4. CRO   CIRCUIT DIAGRAM AND DESIGN   1.      DIFFERENTIATOR WITH INPUT FREQUENCY 1 KHZ Input voltage is 20 v pp. DESIGN   RC<0.0016T; Take R= 5.6 K (To avoid the loading R should be more than ten times the resistance of signal generator)   So   C= 220 p F  ( T=I ms  because the input frequency...
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ZENER DIODE VOLTAGE REGULATOR

admin January 18, 2011 10 Comments
AIM To design and set up a voltage regulator using Zener diode COMPONENTS AND EQUIPMENTS   1. Bridge rectifier circuit 2. Zener diode (6.2 volt) 3. Resistors 4. Capacitors 5. Voltmeter 6. Ammeter 7. Rheostat CIRCUIT DIAGRAM DESIGN To get a 5.6 V as output, select SZ 5.6 as Zener diode .Take load current as 5 mA. Load current =output voltage\output current = 5.6/5 mA = 1.1 K (use 1.2 K) R1 is used to limit the current .Take...
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CLAMPING CIRCUITS

admin January 18, 2011 5 Comments
AIM  To realize various clamping circuits using diodes and capacitors   COMPONENTS AND EQUIPMENTS   1. Diode 2. Capacitor 3. DC power supply 4. CRO   CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS AND TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS   1.      NEGATIVE  CLAMPER WITH 0.7 VOLTS   2.      POSITIVE CLAMPER WITH LEVEL – 0.7 VOLTS 3.      POSITIVE CLAMPER WITH LEVEL  -5 V 4.      NEGATIVE CLAMPER WITH LEVEL +5 V   5.      POSITIVE CLAMPER WITH 5 V   THEORY A clamping circuit is simply a level shifter. It...
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CLIPPING CIRCUITS

admin January 18, 2011 6 Comments
AIM  To set the diode clipping circuits   COMPONENTS AND EQUIPMENTS REQUIRED 1. Diodes 2. Resistors 3. DC sources 4. Signal generator 5. CRO   CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS   1.      POSITIVE CLIPPER AT  0.6V TRANSFER CHARECTERISTICS 2.      NEGETIVE CLIPPER AT -0.6 VOLTS     TRANSFER CHARECTERISTICS       3.      POSITIVE CLIPPER AT  3 V   TRANSFER CHARECTERISTICS           4.      NEGETIVE CLIPPER AT 3V 5.          TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS              ...
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RECTIFIER CIRCUITS USING PN JUNCTION DIODES

admin January 18, 2011 2 Comments
AIM To implement the half wave rectifier and full wave rectifier using 1N 4007 diode COMPONENTS AND EQUIPMENTS REQUIRED 1. Diodes 2. Centre tap transformer 3. Resistors 4. CRO CIRCUIT DIAGRAM HALF WAVE RECTIFIER FULL WAVE CENTRE TAP RECIFIER FULL WAVE BRIDGE RECTIFIER WAVEFORMS HALF WAVE RECTIFIER WITHOUT CAPACITOR FILTER WITH CAPACITOR FILTER FULL WAVE RECTIFIER WITHOUT CAPACITOR FILTER FULL WAVE RECTIFIER WITH CAPACITOR FILTER THEORY A diode is using to pass current in a single direction. Alternating current...
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ZENER DIODE CHARECTERISTICS

admin January 18, 2011 5 Comments
AIM  To plot the reverse characteristics of zener diode and to find the breakdown voltage   COMPONENTS AND EQUIPMENTS NEEDED   1. 6.2 V zener diode 2. Resistors 3. Variable dc power supply 4. Voltmeter 5. Ammeter   CIRCUIT DIAGRAM   THEORY                   Zener diode is a P-N junction diode specially designed to operate in the reverse biased mode. It is acting as normal diode while forward biasing. It has a particular voltage known as break down voltage,...
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DIODE CHARECTERISTICS

admin December 3, 2012 4 Comments
AIM   To plot the characteristics of a pn diode and to find its the cut in voltage and the dynamic resistance.   COMPONENTS AND EQUIPMENTS REQUIRED   1. DC supply 2. Diodes 3. Voltmeter 4. Ammeter 5. Rheostat   CIRCUIT DIAGRAM   THEORY   A diode is the basic electronic component. It’s property is that it can conduct only in one direction. A diode can be made by joining a p type semiconductor and an n type semiconductor....
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