IC Fabrication Techniques
In this article, the different processing techniques that are needed for IC , transistor and diode fabrication are listed. A small procedure of the fabrication process is also explained.
In a monolithic IC, all the circuit components are fabricated into or top of a block of silicon which is referred to as chip or die. Metallization patterns are required to make interconnections between the components present inside the chip. It must also be noted that the individual components will not be separable from the circuit.
The processing steps used to fabricate various silicon devices, such as diodes, transistors, and integrated circuits as follows:
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- Silicon Substrate Preparation
- Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD)
- Ion Implantation
The basic fabrication technique starts with single-crystal silicon wafers. The diodes, transistors and IC’s are manufactured from this single-crystal silicon wafer with the help of the processes that are listed above. The same silicon wafer will have thousands of the discrete devices and IC’s in the wafer form after the whole process is undergone. This single wafer is then divided into individual chips to obtain a single discrete device. Then, different packaging methods are carried out to encapsulate or package these chips.
The packaging provides encapsulation of the chip for protection of the environmental effects and it also provides easy access to the various parts of the chip by means of a lead or -pin structure such that the device may be conveniently plugged into or attached to the rest of the system.
The process steps for wafer fabrication are generally applied a number of times in succession, especially in the case of ICs, where as many as 10 relations of the photolithography, oxidation, and diffusion steps may be used.
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TAKE A LOOK : OXIDATION PROCESS IN IC FABRICATION
TAKE A LOOK : SILICON SUBSTRATE PREPARATION
TAKE A LOOK : CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION (CVD)