Microprocessor and Microcontroller – The difference

jojo December 5, 2011 30 Comments

When you start learning about Microprocessors (in most case you will begin with Intel 8085) and Microcontrollers (usually you will begin with Intel 8051 from the MCS 51 micro controller family), the first question that pops up is “hey… what’s the difference in between” ? In this article I am explaining the basic differences and similarities between a microprocessor and micro controller. In fact you can call this article a simple comparison of both micro computing devices. This comparison will be same (at the basic level) for any micro processor and controller.  So lets begin.

At the basic level, a microprocessor and micro controller exist for performing some operations – they are – fetching instructions from the memory and executing these instruction (arithmetic or logic operations) and the result of these executions are used to serve to output devices. Are you clear? Both devices are capable of continuously fetching instructions from memory and keep on executing these instructions as long as the power is not turned off. Instructions are  electronic instructions represented by a group of bits. These instructions are always fetched from their storage area, which is named as memory.  Now lets take a closer look at block diagrams of a microprocessor based system and a micro controller based system.

Microprocessor based system

microprocessor system - schematic arrangement

Take a closer look at the block diagram and you will see a micro processor has many support devices like Read only memory, Read-Write memory, Serial interface, Timer, Input/Output ports etc. All these support devices are interfaced to microprocessor via a system bus. So one point is clear now, all support devices in a microprocessor based system are external.  The system bus is composed of an address bus, data bus and control bus.

Okay, now lets take a look at the microcontroller.

Micro controller system

microcontroller schematic arrangement

The above block diagram shows a micro controller system in general. What’s the primary difference you see? All the support devices like Read only memory, Read – Write memory, Timer, Serial interface, I/O ports are internal. There is no need of interfacing these support devices and this saves a lot of time for the individual who creates the system. You got the basic understanding ? A micro controller is nothing but a microprocessor system with all support devices integrated inside a single chip. There is no need of any external interfacing in a micro controller unless you desire to create something beyond the limit, like interfacing an external memory or DAC/ADC unit etc. To make this microcontroller function, you need to give a DC power supply, a reset circuit and a quartz crystal (system clock) from external source.

Okay, so we have an idea about the basic difference between a microprocessor and microcontroller. Now lets compare some features of both systems.

Comparison

As you already know, support devices are external in a microprocessor based system where as support devices are internal for a micro controller. Micro controllers offer software protection where as micro processor base system fails to offer a protection system. This is made possible in microcontrollers by locking the on-chip program memory which makes it impossible to read using an external circuit. Okay! So that are basic differences, now you can come up with some more. As we need to interface support devices externally in a microprocessor based system, time required to build the circuit will be more, the size will be more and power consumption will be more in a microprocessor based system compared to microcontroller.

So you wanna read more about a specific microprocessor and micro controller ? Here is:-

Intel 8085 (microprocessor) and Intel 8051 (micro controller)

Comments
  • Pavan kumar Puppala
    August 5, 2015

    i am very interested in microprocessing so please guide me to learn more

  • Priyanka.n
    July 24, 2015

    Hello sir this tutorial is simple to understand & i got few new thing about microprocessor and controller
    Thank you for your service sir

  • lee
    July 7, 2015

    excellent info thanks

  • lee
    July 7, 2015

    Pile of shite

  • Prachi
    March 22, 2015

    Very helpful , logical and easy to understand.

  • sharmila
    January 23, 2015

    it is very useful info

  • ankitasambhare
    June 30, 2014

    What’s the difference between RISC & CISC???? Thanks for the above info, would be better if differences were arranged in tabular form rather than big paragraphs…

  • sandeepsingh
    April 12, 2014

    Thank u a lot.it helps me a lot.as a rural backgrund.

  • Divya
    January 27, 2014

    Really good, helped me a lot …. thank you

  • December 25, 2013

    well,this article is really helpful. thank you for sharing.

  • April 18, 2013

    Sir,what is on chip program memory and serial interface? Can u explain in detail….

  • riya sharma
    February 24, 2013

    today is my papr nd it is so useful 4 me :):) thnk u so much sir 🙂

  • January 10, 2013

    Can you explan electronics?

  • venkatesh
    December 28, 2012

    Hie,

    It is a good theory with proper explanation.

    Thanks

    Hope u keep on posting such explanations about the
    electronic circuits and components too.

  • December 13, 2012

    what is the difference between microprocessor and microcontroller based on software?

    • jojo
      December 13, 2012

      @Tuhin – They both differ mainly on hardware. I think there’s not much of a difference in the way “software” is handled for both!

  • rizwana
    September 1, 2012

    dear sir, could you pls suggest some ideas on embedded system project.. pls reply soon..

  • devendra thakur
    May 25, 2012

    i want even a deep explanation………….

  • ham
    March 27, 2012

    dear sir can u explain about the timing diagrams of the microprocessor

  • kavi priya
    December 16, 2011

    good eve sir,i want to know the traffic light controller program based on 8051.thank u sir

  • December 10, 2011

    udayakumar
    dec 10,2011 at 5.45pm

    sir, i am having a project on implementation of modifying single phase preventer with meu-p 8051 micro controller.sir can you please help me with the circuit diagram and programming for 8051.please help me as soon as possible.

  • umesh yadav
    December 10, 2011

    dear
    sir i need detail of the programing detail of the MC908JL16CPE micro controler

  • umesh yadav
    December 10, 2011

    dear
    sir i wanted to know all detais of the fir alarm system and abut circuit dagram detail and latest fire alarm system

  • shweta k.
    December 9, 2011

    Sir,I am having a project on interfacing a temperature sensor with mue-p 8085 if able also with mue-c 8051,along with two seven segment displays,which will sense the temperature and display it on the seven segment display.Sir,can you please help me with the pcb design circuitary and programming for both?Sir,Please help me as soon as possible.

    • jojo
      December 9, 2011

      Hello shweta, please wait one or two weeks, we will come up with articles on 8051 interfacing very soon. We are working to develop complete tutorial for 8051.

  • sameer gupta
    December 8, 2011

    Sir,please publish an article on microcontroller programming.For this I am searching in many websites but not clear.
    I want to program a chip through my laptop(windows7).What are the hardwares,softwares,cables & ports required to program a microcontroller?

  • mahipal
    December 8, 2011

    Sir, I am seeing your mails everyday. It is very useful to me.Thanking many more

    • priya
      August 6, 2013

      i need major feature between microprocessor and microcontroller

  • December 7, 2011

    Sir, Please tell me what is the major difference between the ICs of the CD 4011B and GD 4011B.

  • December 7, 2011

    Dear Sir, I am seeing your mails everyday. It is very useful to me. I am watching your topics everyone in your website at free of cost. Thanking many more.

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