Stepper motor controller

Description. Here is the circuit diagram of a simple stepper motor controller using only elementary parts. The driver circuit uses, four transistor (SL100) to drive the motor windings, two NOT gates and one XOR gate to decode the two bit control logic to drive the four windings of the motor. The diodes D1 to D4 protects the corresponding transistors from transients generated during the switching of motor windings. d0 and d1 are the control logics which determines the direction of rotation as well as speed. Circuit diagram with Parts list. Notes. The control logic for the circuit can be obtained…

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Simplest FM Transmitter.

Description. Here is the circuit diagram of the simplest FM transmitter using a transistor. Great performance or range is not guaranteed here, because this is an elementary design. General purpose radio frequency transistor BF 494 (Q1) is used here for obtaining FM modulation. A condenser mic is used here to pickup the sound. The condenser mic converts the sound to electrical variations and this variations are fed to the base of Q1, which performs the amplification as well as modulation. The capacitor  C2  and L1 determines the frequency of transmission. The circuit can be powered from a 9V transistor radio…

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Digital temperature sensor

Description. Here is a straight forward, yet effective digital temperature controller that can be used with temperature control systems. The circuit uses IC LM 35 (IC3) to as the temperature sensor. The output of LM 35 is given to the IC ADC 0804 (IC4) which converts the analog output of the LM 35 to digital output. The ADC 0804 is a 8 bit ADC. Eight LED’s are connected to the output  of ADC to show the output logic. If needed the LED’s can be avoided and the output can be connected to any suitable external circuit like temperature controller etc….

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UJT Organ circuit

Description. Here is the circuit diagram of a simple yet interesting mini organ based on UJT 2N 4891 (Q1). You can produce the desired sound by pressing each pushbuttons. You have also the option to set each push button to produce the desired tune you want. The circuit is based on a UJT oscillator who’s frequency is determined by the Presets R6 to R13 (one at a time) and capacitor C2. The transistor Q2 drives the speaker to produce reasonable sound output. For each pushbutton press the corresponding preset will be added to the circuit, and the UJT oscillates in…

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Air craft warning light circuit

Introduction. Here is low cost circuit that can be used for implementing a warning light on the top of tall structures as a warning for low flying aircrafts. Usually such lights are just stay glow type. Here our light is a flashing type, and surely this will draw more attention and of course add more safety. When the AC mains is switched on the bulb will get supply and it will glow. When the bulb glows the LDR adjacent to it gets illuminated and it’s resistance drops. This will increase the voltage drop at the base of transistor Q1 and…

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Mosquito repeller power saver

Description. Almost all liquidator type mosquito repellers are rated 5Watts. It is a pretty energy consuming game  when these repellers are operated through out the night. Even though these liquidators are switched ON and OFF in discrete intervals there will be no considerable loss in the effectiveness, and more over there will be a great saving of energy. Then why can’t we do that and that’s why I designed this circuit. The circuit is nothing but an astable multivibrator designed of IC NE 555  (IC1)  operates in a frequency determined by the values of R1 and C2. When the power…

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Super fast Ni-Cd battery charger

Description. Here is  the circuit diagram of an effective and super fast Ni-Cd battery charger circuit.The circuit is based on the IC MAX 712. The circuit is designed to fast charge a Ni-Cd battery at 3oomA. After the fast charging is completed the circuit charges the battery in trickle charging mode at 15 mA. Here the instant to end fast charging and start trickle charging is sensed by dv/dt method as per the data sheet. This method of charging increases the charging speed as well as the battery life. The circuit is designed strictly as per the data sheet from…

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Cat repeller circuit

With this cool cat/dog repeller circuit you could chase the cats  off  from any where you want. In fact, I designed this circuit to chase my cat from my computer table. Most of the animals like cats respond violently to ultrasonic sound and in fact it’s the best way to chase them off. This principle is employed in this circuit. The circuit here is nothing but an astable multivibrator wired around NE555 (IC1). The cat repellent circuit produces an ultrasonic sound in the range 15-20Khz. The NE 555 is enough to drive a small piezo buzzer and no amplification stages…

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Infrared motion detector circuit

Description. Here is the circuit diagram of an infrared motion detector that can be used to sense intrusions. Infra red rays reflected from a static object will be in one phase, and the rays reflected from a moving object will  be in another phase. The circuit uses this principle to sense the motion. The IC1 (NE 555)  is wired as an astable multivibrator. The IR diode connected at the output of this IC produces infrared beams of frequency 5Khz. These beams are picked by the infrared sensor, photo transistor Q1. At normal condition, that is, when there is no intrusion…

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Low cost fire alarm circuit.

Description. When there is a fire breakout in the room the temperature increases. This ultra compact and low cost fire alarm senses fire breakout based on this fact. Transistor BC177 (Q1) is used as the fire sensor here. When the temperature increases the leakage current of this transistor also increases. The circuit is designed so that when there is an increase in the leakage current of Q1, transistor Q2 will get biased. As a result when there is a fire breakout the transistor Q2 will be on. The emitter of Q2 (BC 108) is connected to the base of Q3(AC…

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