What is Real Time Operating System (RTOS)- How it works?

Mathew Kevin July 10, 2017 7 Comments
                When we hear the word “Operating System” the first ones that come to our mind are those we experience/use in our day to day life, say, Windows XP, Linux, Ubuntu, Windows 7 for Computer systems, Android for mobiles and many more . We mainly know that operating systems are for computers. It is a fact that most of the digital electronic devices run some sort of operating systems inside. There are many operating systems developed for micro controllers...
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Introduction to MPLAB IDE

Anish June 5, 2012 No Comments
Similar to Atmel’s AVR studio, Microchip MPLAB is a feature rich IDE which integrates compiler tool-chains into the IDE itself and also supports proprietary programming devices and debuggers for the Microchip’s Controller family. Just if you have a microchip programmer such as Pickit2 or ICD2, then just plug it to the computer and all you need is to prepare your code in the MPLAB IDE and then straight away build and download the code into your controller. Downloading MPLAB...
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4 Great Books to Learn Basic Electronics

jojo August 9, 2018 90 Comments
For the last 3 years or so, we have been providing great educational content on electronics for free through this website. We have hundreds of circuits and theoretical articles on various topics which you can freely use to learn. But “Electronics” is a vast and wide subject and there are plenty of areas that aren’t even touched yet. We get lots of requests from readers in the form of comments and e-mails asking – How can I start learning...
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Frequency counter circuit

Mathew Kevin July 10, 2017 1 Comment
Simple Frequency Counter You may have already seen various projects over many websites named Frequency counter, Digital Frequency Counter etc. I’m posting just another of them. Showing the use of timer/counter of AVR micro controller (Atmega8) in one of it’s form. This circuit can be used as a simple micro controller project for your engineering courses. Frequency of a periodic signal is the number of cycles it repeats per second!   So If we count the number of cycles recorded...
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Standard Library & String Formatting for AVR

Mathew Kevin July 10, 2017 4 Comments
Here in this article, I am planning to brief you through the Standard library of AVR-GCC. By the term “Standard Library” we mean the “Standard header” files like “stdio.h”, we commonly see in C programming language. Have you ever used String Formatting in ANSI C? Did you use Standard library functions? If you are familiar with C programming language, then you must be familiar with standard header files we write in the beginning of the program like “#include stdio.h“,...
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LCD Interfacing with AVR

Mathew Kevin July 10, 2017 13 Comments
Interfacing LCD Display in 8bit Mode I’ve already discussed about the LCD display in a note here in this website. You can read the Note on character LCD Display here. Now let us come to the interfacing side of LCD. Let us see the 8bit mode interfacing of the LCD display with an AVR micro controller first. I have added two circuits in this post 1) Interfacing LCD with Avr Atmega8 and 2) Interfacing with Atmega32. Towards the end...
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Timers and Interrupts (PIC16F84A)

Anish June 5, 2012 1 Comment
Timer Module: A Timer is a simple module included along with almost most of the microcontrollers. A timer can be used as a timer/counter. The size of the timer varies from controller to controller. The PIC16F84A has one 8 bit timer module. The very basic operation of a timer is to count and nothing else!. In the timer mode, the module will increment automatically for every instruction cycle (instruction cycle is not same as the clock cycle) and in...
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Voltage Regulator Circuit-The Big List

jojo April 2, 2012 7 Comments
Over years we have published a handful of voltage regulator circuits in this website – which serve many purposes. In this article I am compiling a quick list of the best voltage regulator circuits that will be useful for all of you. The term “Voltage Regulator” is some what general in nature – it can be an AC-AC regulator or a DC-DC regulator. Basically what it does is simple – it regulates and maintains a desired voltage level as...
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Open Source Hardware will revolutionize the way we learn Electronics

jojo March 31, 2012 5 Comments
At CircuitsToday, our vision is to freely distribute electronics knowledge. Now that means, we want any one with an interest in electronics to learn as much as he would like. We make this easy by giving away free content in the form of practical circuits and theoretical explanation. In a way we can be called as an “open source” but not exactly! We have not associated this website with any open source movement so far. For all these years...
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Half adder

admin March 29, 2012 16 Comments
Half adder circuit. To understand what is a half adder you need to know what is an adder first. Adder circuit is a combinational digital circuit that is used for adding two numbers. A typical adder circuit produces a sum bit (denoted by S) and a carry bit (denoted by C) as the output. Typically adders are realized  for adding binary numbers but they can be also realized  for adding other formats like BCD (binary coded decimal, XS-3 etc....
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FM transmitter circuit

FM Transmitter Circuits-The BIG List

jojo July 20, 2018 9 Comments
Over years we have developed a number of FM transmitter circuits with various aspects. Today I thought of listing all of them here as a single web page, so anyone can easily navigate through all the radio transmitter circuits and its schematic diagrams. For first time readers- What is an FM transmitter An FM transmitter is basically a small gadget that can broadcast audio from a source on a selected frequency. Usually, personal FM transmitters are plugged into the...
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7 segment display driver

admin March 27, 2012 9 Comments
7 segment display. Seven segment display is a device that can display decimal numbers and are widely used in electronic clocks, electronic meters, digital display panels and a hand full of  applications where numerical data is  is displayed. The idea of seven segment display is very old and they are in the scenario from early nineteenth century. Seven segment display have seven segments which can be individually controlled (ON/OFF) to display the desired number. Numbers from 0 to 9...
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Types of generators

Types of DC Generators

jojo August 9, 2018 13 Comments
“Energy can be converted from one form to other form” – A generator does the same – it converts mechanical energy to electrical energy. Mechanical energy can be created by using water turbines, steam turbines, internal combustion engines etc. And a generator converts this mechanical energy to electrical energy.  Generators can be broadly classified as AC generators and DC generators. Here lets take a look the types of DC generators. DC generators are classified based on their method of...
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THX Audio Engine – The Best Speaker Concept!!

john March 19, 2012 2 Comments
THX Audio Concept While sitting in a theater or in front of a home theater system we all have wished to get the best seat to get the best view and the surround sound effect. In the case of a speaker or any audio system there exists a spot called the sweet spot, where the effect of surround sound is at its best. We can feel a slight change in its features even if we are sitting a little...
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The History of Electronics-Infographics

jojo March 16, 2012 9 Comments
Hey guys, Ever thought how the world as we see it now evolved? How came great inventions and discoveries? What were the reasons behind all these great inventions like Diodes, Transistors, IC”s and Micro computers? Here we have developed an Infographics (representing information with the help of graphics) which shows the “History of Electronics”. Note: To view the image in full size – Click on the image or Right click on the image and press “Open Link in New...
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Ripple carry adder

admin August 11, 2018 6 Comments
In this article, learn about Ripple carry adder by learning the circuit. A ripple carry adder is an important digital electronics concept, essential in designing digital circuits. Ripple carry adder circuit. Multiple full adder circuits can be cascaded in parallel to add an N-bit number. For an N- bit parallel adder, there must be N number of full adder circuits. A ripple carry adder is a logic circuit in which the carry-out of each full adder is the carry in of...
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Cascode amplifier

admin March 13, 2012 1 Comment
Cascode amplifier is a two stage circuit consisting of a transconductance amplifier followed by a buffer amplifier. The word “cascode” was originated from the phrase “cascade to cathode”. This circuit have a lot of advantages over the single stage amplifier like, better  input output isolation, better gain, improved bandwidth, higher input impedance, higher output impedance, better stability, higher slew rate etc. The reason behind the increase in bandwidth is the reduction of Miller effect.  Cascode amplifier is generally constructed using FET ( field...
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Piccolo – The ‘Sketching’ Robot

john March 6, 2012 5 Comments
Piccolo Piccolo can be said as the perfect companion for a graphic designer or an engineer as it helps him to sketch his creativity. Piccolo is a small pocket sized robot which uses servo mechanism for developing and deploying the accurate 2D or 3D output. Like all other robots, this one also works according to CNC technology. CNC is the acronym of Computer Numerical Control. Here the computer converts the design produced by the computer aided design software (CAD)...
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Lytro Light Field Camera – The Next Generation Camera is Here

john March 5, 2012 4 Comments
Lytro Light Field Camera Since its invention, the technology behind a camera has developed a lot beyond imagination. Nowadays, the device has become so sleek in design that it is integrated with other gadgets like mobiles and computers. To take a good photo, a photographer needs to use a camera with good resolution and focus. What if the camera had a technique by which the focus could be provided after the photo was taken? This would give the photographer...
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Flip Flop Conversion

john August 11, 2018 58 Comments
In this article, let’s learn about flip flop conversions, where one type of flip flop is converted to another type. For the conversion of one flip flop to another, a combinational circuit has to be designed first. If a JK Flip Flop is required, the inputs are given to the combinational circuit and the output of the combinational circuit is connected to the inputs of the actual flip flop. Thus, the output of the actual flip flop is the...
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A Note on Character LCD Displays

Mathew Kevin July 10, 2017 15 Comments
There are many display devices used by the hobbyists. LCD displays are one of the most sophisticated display devices used by them. Once you learn how to interface it, it will be the easiest and very reliable output device used by you! More, for micro controller based project, not every time any debugger can be used. So LCD displays can be used to test the outputs. Obviously, for last possibility, you need to know how to use this stuff...
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Contact Lenses with “The Terminator” Mode!!

john February 26, 2012 2 Comments
Special Contact Lens In the movie “The Terminator”, we see Arnold Schwarzenegger check out the complete profile of the subject he is about to face.  A similar technology has been developed by Babak Parviz, an electrical engineer at the University of Washington. Babak designed a lens that can be used to display a single pixel at a time. This display can be switched on and turned off through a wireless medium. The lens consists of an IC which stores...
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The Single Atom Transistor Concept

john February 24, 2012 3 Comments
Worlds Smallest Single Atom Transistor A group of researchers including Michelle Simmons and her colleagues developed a single phosphorus atom transistor using a Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) at the University of New South Wales. The 3-dimensional perspective of the device is shown in the figure above. Till date, this is known to be the smallest transistor ever built, and ever to be built in future. Thus, this device will be known to be the stepping stone to quantum computers....
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Log amplifier

admin February 24, 2012 20 Comments
Log amplifier. Log amplifier is a linear circuit in which the output voltage will be a constant times the natural logarithm of the input. The basic output equation of a log amplifier is v Vout = K ln (Vin/Vref); where Vref is the constant of normalisation, and K is the scale factor. Log amplifier finds a lot of application in electronic fields like multiplication or division (they can be performed by the addition and subtraction of the logs of...
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Handling the Digital Input Output in AVR Micro Controllers

Mathew Kevin July 10, 2017 9 Comments
I have already discussed about a few chapters necessary to get into AVR programming. Now this is the first article that deals with programming.  Let us start with the basics. Digital input output (I/O) is the basic feature supported by  AVR micro controller. To facilitate digital input output, three registers are associated with each port of the micro controller. Data Direction Register– This register determines which of the pins will act as an output port, and which of them...
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