Lytro Light Field Camera – The Next Generation Camera is Here

john March 5, 2012 4 Comments
Lytro Light Field Camera Since its invention, the technology behind a camera has developed a lot beyond imagination. Nowadays, the device has become so sleek in design that it is integrated with other gadgets like mobiles and computers. To take a good photo, a photographer needs to use a camera with good resolution and focus. What if the camera had a technique by which the focus could be provided after the photo was taken? This would give the photographer...
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Flip Flop Conversion

john March 7, 2012 58 Comments
For the conversion of one flip flop to another, a combinational circuit has to be designed first. If a JK Flip Flop is required, the inputs are given to the combinational circuit and the output of the combinational circuit is connected to the inputs of the actual flip flop. Thus, the output of the actual flip flop is the output of the required flip flop. In this post, the following flip flop conversions will be explained. SR Flip Flop...
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A Note on Character LCD Displays

Mathew Kevin July 10, 2017 15 Comments
There are many display devices used by the hobbyists. LCD displays are one of the most sophisticated display devices used by them. Once you learn how to interface it, it will be the easiest and very reliable output device used by you! More, for micro controller based project, not every time any debugger can be used. So LCD displays can be used to test the outputs. Obviously, for last possibility, you need to know how to use this stuff...
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Contact Lenses with “The Terminator” Mode!!

john February 26, 2012 2 Comments
Special Contact Lens In the movie “The Terminator”, we see Arnold Schwarzenegger check out the complete profile of the subject he is about to face.  A similar technology has been developed by Babak Parviz, an electrical engineer at the University of Washington. Babak designed a lens that can be used to display a single pixel at a time. This display can be switched on and turned off through a wireless medium. The lens consists of an IC which stores...
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The Single Atom Transistor Concept

john February 24, 2012 3 Comments
Worlds Smallest Single Atom Transistor A group of researchers including Michelle Simmons and her colleagues developed a single phosphorus atom transistor using a Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) at the University of New South Wales. The 3-dimensional perspective of the device is shown in the figure above. Till date, this is known to be the smallest transistor ever built, and ever to be built in future. Thus, this device will be known to be the stepping stone to quantum computers....
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Log amplifier

admin February 24, 2012 18 Comments
Log amplifier. Log amplifier is a linear circuit in which the output voltage will be a constant times the natural logarithm of the input. The basic output equation of a log amplifier is v Vout = K ln (Vin/Vref); where Vref is the constant of normalisation, and K is the scale factor. Log amplifier finds a lot of application in electronic fields like multiplication or division (they can be performed by the addition and subtraction of the logs of...
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Handling the Digital Input Output in AVR Micro Controllers

Mathew Kevin July 10, 2017 9 Comments
I have already discussed about a few chapters necessary to get into AVR programming. Now this is the first article that deals with programming.  Let us start with the basics. Digital input output (I/O) is the basic feature supported by  AVR micro controller. To facilitate digital input output, three registers are associated with each port of the micro controller. Data Direction Register– This register determines which of the pins will act as an output port, and which of them...
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Audio oscillator circuit

admin February 22, 2012 12 Comments
ICL 8038 waveform generator. ICL8038 is a monolithic waveform generator IC that can produce sine, square and triangular waveforms with very little distortion. The frequency can be programmed from 0.001Hz to 300 KHz using external timing capacitor and resistor. Frequency modulation and sweeping can be attained by using an external voltage. Other features of the ICL8038 are high linearity, high level outputs, simultaneous sine, square, triangle wave outputs, low external parts count, high temperature stability etc. The working of...
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Arduino (For beginners)

Anish February 4, 2016 13 Comments
We have developed this article as a beginners guide for Arduino.  We have compiled many of our arduino articles to help you understand the board better and begin your first serious project using Arduino. So let’s begin. Ever thought of working with microcontrollers, but resisted due to lack of knowledge about them? Ever made a futile attempt of reading a whole microcontroller datasheet? Ever found hard learning (memorizing) the assembly syntax and keywords? Can’t afford to buy the costly USB...
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Waterless Washing Machine Cleans Laundry Through Magnetic Levitation

john February 16, 2012 18 Comments
Waterless Washing Machine – Laundry Orb New inventions have made strainful works always easier for people. Let us take an example of a washing machine. In early days, people used to wash their own clothes by hand and scrub all the dirt away using a brush and detergent. Later, the washing machine was invented, which simplified laundry cleaning. The device was further developed to produce semi-cleaners and lately fully automatic washing machines. A new concept has been introduced by...
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Stereo headphone amplifier

admin February 16, 2012 8 Comments
LM4910 stereo headphone amplifier. LM4910 belonging to the Boomer series of National Semiconductors is an integrated stereo amplifier primarily intended for stereo headphone applications. The IC can be operated from 3.3V ans its can deliver 0.35mW output power into a 32 ohm load. The LM4910 has very low distortion ( less than 1%)   and the shutdown current is less than 1uA. This low shut down current makes it suitable for battery operated applications. The IC is so designed that there...
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Avr Atmega8 Microcontroller – An Introduction

Mathew Kevin August 10, 2017 8 Comments
In my previous article, I’ve discussed about ATmega32. Now, let me introduce another member of AVR microcontroller family, the ATmega8. This member has many features similar to that of ATmega32. But it has reduced number of features and capabilities, yet it has enough features to work with. Now let me tell you that if you want to gather knowledge and at the same time want to do it in less cost than the budget of ATmega32, you can think...
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Simple FM transmitter circuit.

admin February 11, 2012 58 Comments
Two transistor FM transmitter. Description. A lot of FM transmitter circuits have been already published here. This just another one, a simple two transistor FM transmitter.The first stage of the circuit is a preamplifier stage based on transistor Q1. This is a collector to base biased amplifier stage where resistor R2 sets the collector current and R1 provided the necessary collector to base bias. C1 is the input DC decoupling capacitor which couples the input audio signal to the...
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IMAX – The Giant Step to Movies

john February 9, 2012 No Comments
Let a movie be in 3-D or an ordinary 70mm projection. We have always loved it for the story, sound effects, visual effects, and many other factors. But latest technologies have improved the way in which graphics and other effects have been introduced in each frame. Out of them IMAX is the most popular. The Fox introduced the first 70mm format, the Fox grandeur in 1929. Later the Cinema scope and vista vision widened the image from 35mm. Then...
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Proximity detector circuit

admin February 14, 2012 9 Comments
NE567  tone decoder / PLL IC. NE567 is a tone decoder IC from Philips. The IC has a built in PLL circuit with AM lock detection and an output driver circuit. The main function of NE567 is to drive a load (usually LED) when a frequency with in its detection band is available at the IC’s input. Center frequency of the input frequency band, output delay etc can be programmed using external components. The features of NE567 IC includes...
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Floating regulator

admin February 2, 2012 4 Comments
Floating regulator. Floating regulator is a type of voltage regulator that works without a real ground connection. This is a trick used for regulating voltages higher than the rated value. For example the typical output voltage range of LM723 voltage regulator IC is 2 to 37V DC. The upper limit can be pushed beyond 37V DC by using the floating technique. In floating configuration, the ground pin of the regulator will not be at the same voltage of the...
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PLL FM demodulator circuit

admin November 21, 2013 2 Comments
PLL FM demodulator. A simple PLL FM demodulator circuit using IC XR2212 is shown here. XR2212 is a highly stable, monolithic PLL (phase locked loop) IC specifically designed for communication and control system applications. The IC has 0.01 Hz to 300KHz frequency range, 4.5 to 20V operating voltage range, 2mV to 3Vrms dynamic range, high temperature range, TTL / CMOS compatibility and adjustable tracking range. The block diagram of a typical PLL FM demodulator circuit is shown below. The...
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Types of Chopper Circuits

john July 27, 2017 12 Comments
In power electronics chopper circuits, unidirectional power semiconductors are used.  If these semiconductor devices are arranged appropriately, a chopper can work in any of the four quadrants. we can classify chopper circuits according to their working in any of these four quadrants  as  type  A, type B, type C, type D and type E. Let us now take a look of these classifications and the characteristics of various classifications. Type A Chopper or First–Quadrant Chopper This type of chopper is...
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PIC16F84A – Instruction Set (Continued)

Anish June 5, 2012 1 Comment
Having known about the byte oriented file register operation, only two categories are remaining – the bit oriented file register operations and the control operations. Bit-oriented file register operations: Here these instructions are used when a single bit needs to be affected/changed/checked. There are only four bit-oriented instruction for the 16F84A Mnemonics & Operands Description BCF f,b Bit clear f (b represents the bit to be cleared in the specified register) BSF f,b Bit set f BTFSC f,b Bit...
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Next Generation 3D Holographic Displays

john January 27, 2012 1 Comment
The Hollywood film industry went to a whole new level after 3-D movies like James Cameron’s “Avatar” to the latest “Underworld Awakening”. The perspective of watching movies through a whole new dimension is believed to have brought movie fans closer to reality. But, people often complain about headaches and other eye problems after watching a movie continuously for 2 to 3 hours.   But, due to the awesome movie effects, most companies are ignoring this problem and are introducing more...
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Choppers – A general introduction

Arun January 31, 2012 10 Comments
Choppers  A chopper is basically a dc to dc converter whose main function/usage is to create adjustable dc voltage from fixed dc voltage sources through the use of semiconductors. Types of choppers The main classification of the types of choppers is given in another post. Take a look – TYPES OF CHOPPER CIRCUITS There are two types of choppers – AC and DC. AC Link Chopper In the case of an ac link chopper, first dc is converted to...
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PIC16F84A – Instruction Set

Anish June 5, 2012 1 Comment
The instruction set of PIC16F84A has 35 instructions .These instructions are otherwise called Mnemonics. While introducing about the PIC16F84A till the hello world program,  7 instructions are introduced to you which were, BSF – bit set f BCF- bit clear f MOVLW – move literal value to W-register MOVWF – move contents of W-register to file GOTO – go to the address BTFSS –  Bit test f, skip if set DECFSZ...
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MOS – Controlled Thyristor (MCT)

john January 24, 2012 6 Comments
Out of many semiconductor controlled devices, MCT is considered to be the latest. The device is basically a thyristor with two MOSFET’s built into the gate structure. A MOSFET is used for turning ON the MCT and another one is used for turning it OFF. The device is mostly used for switching applications and has other characteristics like high frequency, high power, and low conduction drop and so on. An MCT combines the feature of both conventional four layer...
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World’s Smallest Magnetic Data Storage

john January 23, 2012 2 Comments
Smallest Data Storage Device There will be a time when all the major technologies in the world will be in nanoscale. Recent developments have been undergone in daily used electronic gadgets like mobiles, computers, laptops and so on. As a part of this, a group of researchers from IBM and CFEL (Centre for free-electron Laser Science) have been successful in developing the world’s smallest magnetic data storage unit. The newly invented unit needs only 12 atoms for storing one...
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AVR GCC Library of AVR Studio – An Overview

Mathew Kevin July 10, 2017 No Comments
In embedded C, pre defined libraries play very important role in compiling a program and significantly reduce the code size for the same. However, the optimization and the output file size are very much dependent upon the compiler. In AVR Studio predefined library is pretty big and it is a very complex one. To offer portability a huge amount of work has been made in its Header files. What’s so interesting is that, AVR guys has been successful to...
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