How to Use ADC (Analog to Digital Converter) in AVR – Atmega32

jojo May 19, 2017 2 Comments
Using LM35 Sensor and Atmega32 ADC to measure Temperature Analog to digital conversion is generally needed whenever we deal with a sensor that produces an analog output (for example: LM35 temperature sensor), which is the case for a wide range of sensors. When dealing with such sensors we have to convert the analog signal coming out of them into digital words of ones and zeros so that our microcontroller can process it and make decisions based on it. In...
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Op Amp circuits in Proteus

jojo September 28, 2017 1 Comment
In this chapter, we deal with Operational Amplifiers (Op Amps) in Proteus. The previous chapter was about Transistor Circuits in Proteus. So let’s begin to learn about Operational Amplifiers in Proteus. Op-Amp Circuits in Proteus               Operational amplifiers have a lot of application in analog circuits. In the open loop operation it works as a comparator and gives discrete outputs i.e, +Vsat & -Vsat, whereas in a closed loop operation it works as an amplifier...
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How a Thermostat Works – Tutorial

jojo September 28, 2017 No Comments
When summer sets in, it can be a misery to wage a battle with the heat. Thankfully, you can turn down the thermostat of your HVAC unit and create a comfortable and pleasant indoor temperature. Similarly, in the winter months, you can crank up the thermostat and keep cozy and warm. Homeowners often don’t pay too much attention to the humble thermostat, which is a cleverly designed gadget that ensures ambient temperature is always comfortable, regardless of the outside...
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10 Things to Consider While choosing a PCB Prototype Service

jojo May 21, 2017 4 Comments
Long gone are the days in which a prototype board was made by the designer himself. For many years, the hallmark of an ideal design engineer (or a big shot electronic hacker) was the ability to make their own PCB’s. The art of crafting a home made PCB has evolved over time, from the use of ferric chloride solutions to laser toner printers and even 3D printers in recent times. Well, as the “home made technology” evolved over time...
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DIY SwitchBoard for Home Automation

jojo September 28, 2017 No Comments
The idea of home automation is not bounded to houses, the application area can be extended to security systems, auditoriums, function halls, Libraries etc. Home automation is just a catchy usage.Here, the medium for automation is not considered, only the switchboard connections are discussed. Every automation circuit finally has to control a relay through the port of the microcontroller. So, the circuit is similar up to the relay control, it slightly differs at the load terminals of the relay....
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Robot using Arduino and Bluetooth Module (Obstacle Avoidance Robot)

jojo April 27, 2017 1 Comment
This project is designed to build a robot that automatically detects the obstacle on its path and guides itself whenever an obstacle comes ahead of it. This robotic vehicle is built, using Arduino UNO board. An ultrasonic sensor is used to detect any obstacle ahead of it. A motor driver IC and 2 DC motors are used for controlling the movement of the robot. A servo motor is also used in this project. The ultrasonic sensor is then mounted...
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Transistor Circuits in Proteus

jojo September 28, 2017 No Comments
Proteus software contains a large number of almost all types of transistors. This software can be used as a Transistor selector in circuits designing. This chapter on Proteus explains the basic circuits using transistors and analyzing those circuits with the tools available in the software. Different types of transistors like BJT, FET, MOSFET and some power electronic semiconductor switches like SCR, TRIAC, IGBT etc. are available in Proteus. Mostly BJTs are used for low power and amplifier applications, while...
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Arduino automatic irrigation

Arduino Irrigation and Plant Watering using Soil Moisture Sensor

jojo April 10, 2017 1 Comment
Automattic Irrigation and Plant Watering System using Arduino and Soil Moisture Sensor This project is about a moisture-sensing automatic plant watering system using Arduino UNO. The system reads the moisture content of the soil using soil moisture sensor and switches ON the motor when the moisture is below the set limit. When the moisture level rises above the set point, the system switches off the pump.  The status of the tank, motor and the moisture level will be displayed...
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Home Automation using Arduino and GSM Module

Shone V.J April 7, 2017 7 Comments
In this  article, we are publishing a highly useful home application – GSM based home automation using Arduino. The project consists of a 16×2 LCD module for displaying the status of the home appliances. The status (turn ON or turn OFF) of the connected devices can be changed by sending an SMS from your mobile phone. Upon receiving SMS commands through GSM module, arduino will change the status (turn ON/OFF) of the device that is mentioned in the SMS. Objectives...
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Interface 7 Segment Display to AVR Atmega32 using CD4511B

jojo April 5, 2017 2 Comments
Seven Segment Display operation using Atmega32 and CD4511B Seven segment display is a frequently used device found in several applications such as queuing systems, some types of clocks and calculators. So in this article, we explain how to Interface a 7 Segment Display to the AVR Atmega32 MCU and get it working. Note: We have published several other interfacing tutorials of 7 segment displays like Interfacing 7 segment to 8051, Interfacing  Arduino to 7 Segment Display, and a Proteus...
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Interfacing Accelerometer to Arduino

jojo April 4, 2017 No Comments
In this article, we are going to interface the GY-521 accelerometer with Arduino. The GY-521 has an InvenSense MPU6050 chip which contains a 3-axis accelerometer and a 3-axis gyro meter. This makes it a 6 DOF IMU (6 degrees of freedom inertial measurement unit). The chip also includes a 16-bit analog to digital converter on each channel and a DMP (Digital Motion Processor) unit. The DMP unit is responsible for combining the raw data and performing some calculations to remove...
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DC Motor Speed Control using PWM in AVR Atmega32

jojo March 24, 2017 2 Comments
How to control DC motor speed using PWM on Atmega32 Using PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) to control a device is a common practice in embedded systems; for example, you can use it to control the light intensity of a LED or control the speed of a DC motor. In this article, we will explain how to get a PWM from the AVR Atmega32 and we shalll apply the output PWM to a small DC motor to vary its speed. In...
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Electrical Safety Tips – Ultimate Guide

jojo April 7, 2017 No Comments
Technology and science have made homes (and workplaces) more comfortable and pleasant. People often overlook electricity as it is omnipresent to illuminate homes and operate appliances and gadgets. However, as beneficial electrical currents are to illuminate homes, workplaces, and streets, they can also cause severe injuries; and sometimes these injuries can be fatal. Injuries Due to Electrical Current The human body is a better conductor of electricity than many materials around us. Hence, if electricity does not find a...
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Top 8 Countries with High Salary for Electronics Engineers – Infographics

jojo April 17, 2017 No Comments
Hi everyone, We are publishing a new Infographic in this post, featuring the Top 8 Countries with High Salary for Electronics Engineers. Our first Infographics was on the History of Electronics – which we published a few years back. We received a very good response for that infographic from our readers. However, owing to lack of time for quality research we kept ourselves from publishing another one till date. Finally, here we are with another interesting infographic which is going...
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Digital Integrated Circuits in Proteus

jojo May 7, 2017 No Comments
Proteus software has a big and vast collection of Digital IC library. This software can be used as an IC selector in digital circuits designing. Circuit designers don’t need to waste time searching the availability of various IC’s for the application. This library provides information of the IC’s along with their commercial nomenclatures and manufacturer details. Components can be easily searched within the library using keywords like AND Gate, OR Gate, flip flops, decoders, counters etc. The description part provides...
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Pulse Sensor Arduino

Pulse Sensor and Arduino – Interfacing

jojo March 20, 2017 2 Comments
In this article, we are going to interface a Pulse Sensor with Arduino. The pulse sensor we are going to use is a plug and play heart rate sensor. This sensor is quite easy to use and operate. Place your finger on top of the sensor and it will sense the heartbeat by measuring the change in light from the expansion of capillary blood vessels. Pin Out – Pulse Sensor The pulse sensor has three pins which are as described...
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Arduino Color Sensor

Interface Arduino and Color Sensor – RGB Sensor TCS230

jojo March 16, 2017 1 Comment
In this article, we are going to read the colors using the TCS230 color sensor (RGB Sensor) and Arduino Uno. The TCS 230 color sensor senses the color light by using the photodiodes. The sensor converts the readings from the photodiode into a square wave by using the light to frequency converter. The frequency of these waves is directly proportional to the light intensity. Then the Arduino reads these square waves and gives us the values of the RGB colors....
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How to Interface an External EEPROM with AVR Atmega32

jojo March 13, 2017 No Comments
In this article, we will explain how to communicate to an external EEPROM from the AVR Atmega32 MCU using the I2C communication protocol. So let’s begin our tutorial on how to interface an EEPROM (AT24C16A) with AVR Atmega32. You will usually need an external EEPROM when your system has a certain set of user configurable settings that you need to save even when the system is powered off; so that the system starts with these configurations the next time...
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Arduino and Soil Moisture Sensor -Interfacing Tutorial

jojo March 10, 2017 11 Comments
In this article, we are going to interface a Soil moisture sensor FC-28 with Arduino. This sensor measures the volumetric content of water inside the soil and gives us the moisture level as output. The sensor is equipped with both analog and digital output, so it can be used in both analog and digital mode. In this article, we are going to interface the sensor in both modes. So let’s begin our tutorial on interfacing Arduino and Soil moisture...
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Circuit Analysis using Virtual Instruments in Proteus

Narasimha March 8, 2017 No Comments
This chapter is part of our Proteus Tutorial series. In this chapter we explain circuit analysis using virtual instruments in Proteus.  Oscilloscope Proteus provides oscilloscope, which is a very essential instrument for analysis purpose. The Digital Storage Oscilloscope is featured as: 4-Channel input 2 MHz sampling frequency Invert option for each channel Relational output between channels Input coupling type selection Source selection between channels Adjustable Volts/Div through Knob or manual entry in textbox Auto/One-shot selection for output update Cursor placements...
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DIY Motion Sensor Light using LED Bulb and PIR Sensor

Narasimha March 8, 2017 3 Comments
This project is a DIY Smart Light Adapter – which aims to build a smart light bulb based on your ordinary light bulb (which can be a CFL or an LED lamp) and a PIR sensor. The final output will be a light bulb that turns ON based on motion around a particular area within the range of PIR sensor attached to the ordinary light bulb. So lets begin! If you are not willing to re-wire your home for...
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10 Things You Need to Know Before Buying Connectors

jojo March 1, 2017 1 Comment
Electrical connectors are used to join sections of a circuit. They play a crucial role in the overall working of an electrical component. Thousands of electrical connectors are available and each has its own unique features. They come in all sizes and shapes, from small IC to huge power connectors carrying high currents. With advancements in manufacturing technology, the size of connectors has decreased, while keeping their sturdiness intact. Take for instance pin headers. As the name suggests, these...
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Types of Drones – Explore the Different Models of UAV’s

jojo February 3, 2017 No Comments
A “Drone” is basically an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle(UAV)  – an aircraft without a human pilot aboard. In this article, we explore the different types of drones out there in the market – some of which are just concepts, while most others are already in action. “Drones” can be classified on a different basis – say based on ‘usage‘ like Drones for Photography, Drones for aerial Mapping, Drones for Surveillance etc. However, the best classification of ‘Drones’ can be made on...
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Rigol DS1102E 100MHz Digital Oscilloscope – Review

john June 20, 2017 1 Comment
The Rigol 1102E oscilloscope is an exception when comparing the abundant features it provides for its economic price. This Rigol DSO model is one of the most selling product in its 100 MHz category and finds it vast application in research and development (R&D) wing, technical education, field engineering, electronics and electrical engineering laboratories, and many more. This was one of the first and still the best rigid oscilloscope to provide high scale digital signal processing. Some of its...
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Analog Oscilloscope vs Digital Oscilloscope

john June 20, 2017 No Comments
For electronics hobbyists, engineers and technicians, buying a new oscilloscope can be a bit of a challenge because the brand to choose from, and the specification each one of them provide, and when comparing the cost, is in abundance. So we have put together a form of perspective to guide you in choosing an oscilloscope. As A Beginner Forget about the specs, the cost, and all other technical aspects of the oscilloscope and ask yourself these questions: Do you...
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