Turning-off Methods of an SCR
As already mentioned in previous blog post, once the SCR is fired, it remains on even when triggering pulse is removed. This ability of the SCR to remain on even when gate current is removed is referred to as latching. So SCR cannot be turned off by simply removing the gate pulse.
There are three methods of switching off the SCR, namely natural commutation, reverse bias turn-off, and gate turn-off.
(a) Natural Commutation
When the anode current is reduced below the level of the holding current, the SCR turns off. However, it must be noted that rated anode current is usually larger than 1,000 times the holding value. Since the anode voltage remains positive with respect to the cathode in a dc circuit, the anode current can only be reduced by opening the line switch S, increasing the load impedance RL or shunting part of the load current through a circuit parallel to the SCR, i.e. short-circuiting the device.
(b) Reverse-bias Turn-off
A reverse anode to cathode voltage (the cathode is positive with respect to the anode) will tend to interrupt the anode current. The voltage reverses every half cycle in an ac circuit, so that an SCR in the line would be reverse biased every negative cycle and would turn off. This is called phase commutation or ac line commutation. To create a reverse biased voltage across the SCR, which is in the line of a dc circuit, capacitors can be used. The method of discharging a capacitor in parallel with an SCR to turn-off the SCR is called forced commutation.
In power electronic applications one advantage of using SCRs is that they are compact. The control equipment is also compact if integrated circuits are used. There has also been an attempt to miniaturize capacitors used for forced commutation and for filtering. The former use is important because the currents can be high and thermal dissipation takes high priority in design considerations. Small sizes of capacitors are at present being achieved by the use of metalized plastic film or a plastic film and aluminium foil.
(c) Gate Turn Off
In some specially designed SCRs the characteristics are such that a negative gate current increases the holding current so that it exceeds the load current and the device turns-off. The current ratings are presently below 10 A and this type will not be considered further.