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Electronic Instruments

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Cathode ray tube essentially consists of an electron gun for producing a stream of electrons, focusing and accelerating anodes for producing a narrow and sharply focused electron beam,…

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Q-Meter We know that every inductor coil has a certain amount of resistance and the coil should have lowest possible resistance. The ratio of the inductive reactance to…

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Electronic Multimeters It is one of the most versatile general purpose instruments capable of measuring dc and ac voltages as well as current and resistances. The solid-state electronic…

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Electronic Galvanometers A vacuum tube or transistor amplifier, followed by a milli-ammeter may be employed as a detector. Some of such devices have arbitrary scale values, sometimes with variable…

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True RMS Reading Voltmeter RMS value of the sinusoidal waveform is meas­ured by the average reading voltmeter of which scale is calibrated in terms of rms value. This…

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In electronic ac voltme­ters input signal is firstly rectified and then sup­plied to the dc amplifier, as shown in figure. Sometimes signal is firstly amplified by ac amplifier and…

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DC Voltmeter Block Diagram DC voltmeter mainly consists of a dc ampli­fier apart from the attenuator, as shown in figure. DC voltmeters can further be divided into…

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In all electronic voltmeter circuits the principle involved is that an indication on a permanent magnet moving coil instrument (normally abbreviated as PMMC or D’Arsonval movement) proportional to…

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