Triangular Wave Generator

Triangular wave generator using opamp. This article is about a triangular wave generator using opamp IC. Triangular wave is a periodic, non-sinusoidal waveform with a triangular shape. People often get confused between triangle and sawtooth waves. The most important feature of a triangular wave is that it has equal rise and fall times while a sawtooth wave has un-equal rise and fall times. The applications of triangular wave include sampling circuits, thyristor firing circuits, frequency generator circuits, tone generator circuits etc. There are many methods for generating triangular waves but here we focus on method using opamps. This circuit is…

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Schmitt Trigger using Op-Amp

Schmitt Trigger or Regenerative Comparator Circuit A Schmitt trigger circuit is also called a regenerative comparator circuit. The circuit is designed with a positive feedback and hence will have a regenerative action which will make the output switch levels. Also, the use of positive voltage feedback instead of a negative feedback, aids the feedback voltage to the input voltage, instead of opposing it. The use of a regenerative circuit is to remove the difficulties in a zero-crossing detector circuit due to low frequency signals and input noise voltages. Shown below is the circuit diagram of a Schmitt trigger. It is…

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Pulse Generator using Op-Amp

How to make a Monostable Multi Vibrator using 741 IC ? As already explained , a monostable multivibrator (MMV) has one stable state and one quasi-stable state. The circuit remains in its stable state till an external triggering pulse causes a transition to the quasi-stable state. The circuit comes back to its stable state after a time period T. Thus it generates a single output pulse in response to an input pulse and is referred to as a one-shot or single shot. Monostable multivibrator circuit illustrated in figure  is obtained by modifying the astable multivibrator circuit  by connecting a diode…

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Square Wave Generator using Op-Amp

How to make an Astable or Free running Multi vibrator using 741 Op-Amp ? The non-sinusoidal waveform generators are also called relaxation oscillators. The op-amp relaxation oscillator shown in figure is a square wave generator. In general, square waves are relatively easy to produce. Like the UJT relaxation oscillator, the circuit’s frequency of oscillation is dependent on the charge and discharge of a capacitor C through feedback resistor R,. The “heart” of the oscillator is an inverting op-amp comparator The compa­rator uses positive feedback that increases the gain of the amplifier. In a comparator circuit this offer two advantages. First, the high…

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Zero Crossing Detector using IC 311

How to make a Zero Crossing Detector using  311 Op-Amp IC ? A zero-crossing detector using IC 311 (8 pin DIP unit) is illustrated in figure. The positive (above 0 V) going input signal drives the output transistor on, the output going low (- 10 V in this connection). The negative (below 0 V) go­ing input drives the output transistor off, the output going high (+ 10 V in this connection). The output is thus an indication of whether the input is above or below 0 V. When the input is any positive voltage (above 0 V), the output is…

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Zero Crossing Detector

In this article, we discuss Zero Crossing Detector in detail with two different circuits. In the initial paragraphs of the tutorial, you will learn zero crossing detector using op amp designed using the popular 741 IC. We have a neat draw circuit diagram of zero crossing detector and we have explained its working principle and theory behind the scene in easy to understand words. Towards the middle of this tutorial, you will learn about 2 applications of zero crossing detector – which are time marker generator and phasemeter. Towards the end of article, we have drawn another circuit diagram of…

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Op-Amp Comparator

In this post we will be discussing about the op-amp as a comparator.We have already discussed other applications of the op-amp in rectangular wave form generator circuits like astable (or free-running) multivibrators, monostable multivibrators (or one-shot) and bistable multivibrators (or flip-flops). To get a better understanding of operational amplifiers click here:- Operational Amplifiers (Op-amp)  Op-amp Comparator A comparator finds its importance in circuits where two voltage signals are to be compared and to be distinguished on which is stronger. A comparator is also an important circuit in the design of non-sinusoidal waveform generators as relaxation oscillators. In an op-amp with an open loop…

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MOS (Metal Oxide Semiconductor) IC’s

We have already explained in integrated circuits, Hybrid IC’s about the classification of IC’s as bipolar IC’s and Unipolar IC’s. In bipolar IC’s, devices like BJT’s are used. In unipolar IC’s, devices like Field Effect Transistors are used. Metal oxide semiconductor IC (MOS IC) based on MOSFET structure have found wide applications in the digital field. Here are some comparisons and advantages over bipolar IC’s. 1. Reduction in size MOS IC’s are more suitable than bipolar IC’s I applications like large scale integration (LSI), and very large scale integration (VLSI). They are also used in memory chips and microprocessors. This…

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Integrated Transistor Amplifier

Related Articles Integrated Circuits (IC) – Concept, Classification and Advantages Integrated Circuits-Merits and Demerits Classification of Integrated Circuits Monolithic IC Monolithic IC Manufacturing Process Monolithic IC-Component Fabrication How to make an integrated transistor amplifier ? We have already learnt about the basics of integrated circuits, Monolithic IC manufacturing process and its fabrication. In this post we are going to illustrate how a complete transistor amplifier circuit including bias resistors can be formed on a silicon wafer using photolithographic process. In the process the masking pattern must be laid carefully to include additional interconnections as well. The figure above shows a…

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IC Packages

Related Articles Integrated Circuits (IC) – Concept, Classification and Advantages Integrated Circuits-Merits and Demerits Classification of Integrated Circuits Monolithic IC Monolithic IC Manufacturing Process Monolithic IC-Component Fabrication Types of IC Packages For the protection of ICs from external environment and to provide mechanical protection and terminals for electrical connections, various types of packages are used. Several standard packages in general use are shown in figure. The metal can type of container provides electromagnetic shielding for the IC chip which cannot be provided by plastic or ceramic packages. The plastic dual-in-line package is much cheaper than other types of packages and…

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