TeraHertz Transistors

Terahertz transistors are the new generation semiconductor transistors developed by Intel Corporation. The researchers in Intel had developed a new transistor structure that maintains Moore’s law and would lead them into the discovery of these high speed new generation transistors. The terahertz transistor basically has higher speed (in GHz), High power efficiency, and high heat reduction capacity. These transistors have a fast switching rate of more than trillion times per sec. They also have the capability to perform 50 to 100 times faster than normal traditional transistors. The first terahertz transistor was only capable for handling 3GHz. But the latest terahertz transistors is capable of handling more than 800 GHz (scientists at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Campaign have discovered a transistor with a frequency of 845GHz and 300GHz faster than previous discovery).By using this technology, we can create lot of real time functioning and powerful computing techniques such as grid computing, nano-computing and other researches.

Structure of Normal Terahertz Transistors

Structure of Intel Terahertz Transistor
Structure of Intel Terahertz Transistor

Terahertz transistors basically contain three major changes than other conventional transistors. They have thicker source and drain regions and a special ultra thin insulating silicon layer too. These silicon layers integrate below the source drain region. The comparison between terahertz transistor and normal transistor is given below.

Comparison Between Terahertz Transistor and Normal Transistor
Comparison Between Terahertz Transistor and Normal Transistor

High Speed Terahertz Transistors

Structure of High-Speed Terahertz Transistor
Structure of High-Speed Terahertz Transistor

Terahertz transistors are from made from indium phosphide and indium gallium arsenide that helps to increase its speed and thermal handling efficiency. The grading is an important factor that affects the transistor performance. The compositional grading of these components enhances the electron velocity and also improves its efficiency too. The construction of these transistors is very complex and researchers also refine their fabrication process to produce tinier transistor components as compared to normal transistor.  They are designed to be very thin in shape and size (12.5nM approx). Vertical fabrication scaling process is usually used so as to reduce the distance of electron travel and produce a higher speed with better efficiency than before.

 

 

Main advantages of terahertz transistors are given below

  • Speed

Speed is one of the main advantages of this transistor. Normal transistors are only capable for handling the frequency in MHz ranges. But In the case of terahertz transistors, it may vary from 3 GHz to 850Ghz.If we integrate these transistors in microprocessors/controllers, other integrated circuits, we can improve the speed, performance, also perform several multitasking operations simultaneously

  • Power consumption and temperature handling

All the terahertz transistors are low power high temperature handling components than existing transistors. By the proper design techniques, these transistors are produce very less amount of heat and very low leakage currents. Due to these reasons, these types of transistors provide greater efficiency (80-95%).

  • Small size

These devices are normally very small in size (very tiny junction making process). Due to the smaller size, we can implement these chips inside micro components such as IC’s,MPU,MCU,etc.

Applications

1)      Manufacturing of microprocessors/controllers

2)      Manufacturing of ARM devices

3)      Space researches

4)      Grid computing systems

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