Water Level Controller using 8051

Water level controller using 8051.

A water level controller  using 8051 is shown in this article. A lot of water level controller projects have been published in this website but this is the first one based on a microcontroller. This water level controller monitors the level of the over head tank  and automatically switches on the water pump when ever the level goes below a preset limit. The level of the over head tank is indicated using 5 LED’s and the pump is switched OFF when the over head tank is full. The pump is not allowed to start if the water level in the sump tank is low and also the pump is switched OFF when the level inside the sump tank goes low during a pumping cycle.

Note:- We are selling a Project Kit for this Water Level Controller which can be bought from our Online Store. The project kit is a modified version of the project shown above. This Water Level Controller project kit uses 4 float switches to measure water level. The status of water level in the tank and status of the motor is displayed using an LCD module. This system monitors the water level of the tank and automatically switches ON the motor whenever tank is empty. The motor is switched OFF when the overhead tank or container is FULL.

Water Level Controller Project KitThe use of float switches makes the circuit rugged and ensures a maintenance free operation over a very long period of time.The project kit is available in plug and play form and do it yourself form. A 12-0-12 mains transformer is also available with the kit and it is not shown in the figure below.Water Level Indicator Project Kit

Main article continues…………….

The level sensor probes for the overhead tank are interfaced to the port 2 of the microcontroller through transistors. Have a look at the sensor probe arrangement for the overhead tank in Fig1. A positive voltage supply probe goes to the down bottom of the tank. The probes for sensing 1/4, 1/2, 3/4 and FULL levels are placed with equal spacing one by one above the bottom positive probe. Consider the topmost (full level) probe, its other end is connected to the base of transistor Q4 through resistor R16. Whenever water rises to the full level current flows into the base of transistor Q4 which makes it ON and so its collector voltage goes low. The collector of Q4 is connected to P2.4 and a low voltage at  P2.4 means the over head tank is not FULL. When water level goes below the full level probe, the base of Q2 becomes open making it OFF. Now its collector voltage goes high and high at P2.4 means the tank is not full. The same applies to other sensor probes (3/4, 1/2, 1/4) and the microprocessor understands the current level by scanning the port pins P2.4 ,P2.5, P2.6 and P2.7. All these port pin are high (all sensor probes are open) means the tank is empty.

Port pin P0.5 is used to control the pump. When ever it is required start pumping, the controller makes P0.5 low which makes transistor Q6 ON which in turn activates the relay K1 that switches the pump. Also the LED d6 glows indicating the motor is ON. LED D7 is the low sump indicator. When the water level in the sump tank goes low, the controller makes P0.7 low which makes LED D7 to glow. The circuit diagram of the water level controller is shown in the figure below.

Circuit diagram.

water level controller using 8051

Water level controller using 8051

Program.

MOV P2,#11111111B // initiates P2 as sensor input
MOV P0,#11111111B // initiates P2 as the output port
MOV A,#00000000B
MAIN:ACALL SMPCK // checks the level of the sump tank
MOV A,P2 // moves the current status of P2 to A
CJNE A,#11110000B,LABEL1 // checks whether tank is full
SETB P0.1
SETB P0.2
SETB P0.3
SETB P0.4
CLR P0.0 // glows full level LED
SETB P0.5
LABEL1:MOV A,P2
CJNE A,#11111000B,LABEL2 // checks whether tank is 3/4
SETB P0.0
SETB P0.2
SETB P0.3
SETB P0.4
CLR P0.1 // glows 3/4 level LED
LABEL2:MOV A,P2
CJNE A,#11111100B,LABEL3 // checks whether tank is 1/2
SETB P0.0
SETB P0.1
SETB P0.3
SETB P0.4
CLR P0.2 // glows 1/2 level LED
LABEL3:MOV A,P2
CJNE A,#11111110B,LABEL4 // checks whether tank is 1/4
SETB P0.0
SETB P0.1
SETB P0.2
SETB P0.4
CLR P0.3 // glows 1/4 level LED
JB P0.6,LABEL4
CLR P0.5 // switches motor ON
LABEL4:MOV A,P2
CJNE A,#11111111B,MAIN // checks whether tank is empty
SETB P0.0
SETB P0.1
SETB P0.2
SETB P0.3
CLR P0.4 // glows EMPTY LED
JB P0.6,MAIN // checks whether sump is low
CLR P0.5 // switches motor ON
SJMP MAIN
SMPCK:JB P0.6,LABEL5 // checks whether sump is low
SETB P0.7 // extinguishes the sump low indicator LED
SJMP LABEL6
LABEL5:SETB P0.5 // switches the pump OFF
CLR P0.7 // glows sump low indicator LED
LABEL6:RET
END

Show Comments

164 thoughts on “Water Level Controller using 8051

  1. Rohith N

    sir instead of 80s51 shall we use at89s52 sir i kindly requesting to you please send at89s52 ic program for this water level controller project

    Reply
  2. DEBOJYOTI

    Sir i do automatic water level controller Using 8052 (at89s52) as per ur circuite but program is not working,Please help me and send me correct program.

    Reply
  3. suresh

    hi sir your automatic water level controller program not executed in programmer it`s says errors in your program

    Please send me correct program for automatic water level control using AT89S51. micro controller
    Thank you sir

    Reply
  4. Jac_eX

    Hi,

    Just me going through the diagram thought to myself that it could be useful to get a list of components with exact details, am new to it so quite challenging that is for me now, for example that X1 is 11.2MHz its only specification ?
    And one more thing, does the relay has to be 200ohms ? hard to find one, biggest I seen in this voltage is 170 and out of stock at the moment, available 67ohm, is there way around, let me know ASAp please.

    Jac

    Reply
  5. Rahul

    Sir, I constructed this circuit and its working fine. But I am worried about power supply circuit, will it be able to work 24×7 the whole year? And which is better, using a transformer or a smps power supply along with voltage regulator?

    Reply
  6. imam

    Hello….
    I’m newbie in microcntrol.
    I using reads51.
    Why that program is not correct?
    Always at ” MOV P0,#11111111B // initiates P2 as the output port “.

    Reply
  7. Hiren

    Can anyone plzz send me the correct program file for this project because given program is not working.
    Thanks,
    Hiren

    Reply
  8. kumara raja

    sir making total kit all are ok sump,motor,leds,and relay but
    over head tank sensors,leds not working
    pls give me solutions pls sir
    pls give me reply

    Reply
  9. rajana

    By setting P0 to 11111111B, the cathode of LED is floating (high impedance). This is open drain configuration?

    Reply
  10. rajanna

    respected sir

    i want wire less water level controller project circuit diagram with detail and using 8051 water level controller details &pcb layout

    Reply
    • Nili

      Can anyone plzz send me the c language program of this water level project as i hav to merge it to control gate.

      Reply
  11. raja raja cholan

    please send me the whole program and working on the basis of block diagram and all the details of water level controller using 8051…plzzzz sir

    Reply
  12. supriya singh

    please send me the whole program and working on the basis of block diagram and all the details of water level controller using 8051…plzzzz sir

    Reply
  13. karthik

    Dear sir,

    REQUEST:::::

    Please give me a circuit with manual “ON”……

    Please send to my mail with complete report of the project with manual “ON”

    Reply
  14. anjali

    Sir, this project is nice,I want to make it as a hobby project.. can you please send some more information on this,.. pleasing you,send some more information

    Reply
  15. kishorekumar

    hello sir,
    I want to more information about water level controller using 8051 pls sir send me full program n more information of this project

    Reply
  16. Me its me

    We are interested in doing this project on water level indicator using 8051 micro controller…Sir can u please send further details and much more information about this very topic.

    Reply
  17. Gezahegn

    I am very surprised with your circuit posted; but how we can change the programming language used here to c-language program ?

    In addition i need help concerning brief explanation

    10 Q 4 ur consideration!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

    Reply
  18. sushil

    Hello kalpesh sir
    I want to review ur program plz send me ur program & I want to know that did u any change made in this circuit?

    Reply
  19. Dilkhush

    Sir,can you give more detail about circuit diagram and how should we connect motor.or can you give simple circuit diagram to connect i/p and o/p in microcontroller and water tank and motor.

    Reply
  20. Brandon

    Dear Friend , Can i have the full program for this “Water level Controller using 8051″ . can i have it sent to my email . Thank you very much please .

    Reply
  21. ganeshreddy

    I wanna make automatic water
    level controller .please send me
    relevant information ,procedure
    circuit ,pics ,videos expecting
    ur cooperation. Can anyone please tell me the
    connection of relay with the
    motor if it is to operate at
    220/240 V ?
    thank u
    Reply

    Reply
  22. s.keerthiga

    Hi ……I need ful information ab water level controller using 8051…..so will u plz send 2 my mail ID

    Reply
  23. Miss Hussain

    Hello.can I please gt a complete report on how to make the water level controller?
    I m very new to the concept of microprocesormand microcontroller.can I please now wht exactly are sensors?
    Thank u

    Reply
  24. Kiran biradar

    I want 2 know the detail information about ‘water pump operated on mobile’ for my project, pls snd it on my mail.

    Reply
  25. Gimba Yaqubo

    Can anyone please tell me the connection of relay with the motor if it is to operate at 220/240 V ?

    Reply
  26. Sam Victor

    Pls attach a document on this project and send to me am ready to pay. I want to do it in my final year project. Thanks

    Reply
  27. Murali krishna

    I wanna make automatic water level controller .please send me relevant information ,procedure circuit ,pics ,videos expecting ur cooperation
    thank u.

    Reply
  28. Murali krishna

    I wanna make automatic water level controller .please send me relevant information ,procedure circuit ,pics ,videos expecting ur cooperation
    thank u

    Reply
  29. Murali krishna

    I wanna make automatic water level controller .please send me relevant information ,procedure circuit ,pics ,videos
    thank u

    Reply
  30. victor lab

    KALPESH CHHABHAIYA
    Pls can you snd a display pix of urs to my mail. Pls apart from d code modification, wht other modification did u do?

    Reply
  31. Sai Krishna

    Sir,
    Can u please send me a detailed report on this project… i would like to undertake this project…. i would really appreciate it if you could do it at the earliset

    Reply
  32. sathya

    sir,
    please provide me more information about water level sensing and how probes does the job in sensing the water. Please explain the principle of sensing the water level at various level.
    thank you,
    sathya.

    Reply
  33. apoorv jain

    sir i want to know that can i use pic c compiler for this coding . if not which compiler i can use for generating its hex code or else u provide me the hex code.

    Reply
  34. panaqta

    Respected sir, This circuit is very very good but i want to use this circuit with main water line (when the water is available in a line . the motor will start automatically?
    is it possible ????
    Best Regards
    M.saleem
    panaqta

    Reply
  35. Pradip

    Dear Sir/Madam,
    I have convert program in to hex file & load it, but it’s not working. So if you give me hex file for the same ckt than it will helpful to me.
    Thank you

    Reply
  36. sarfraz

    can we get 8051 microcontroller with allready programmed or we have to construct the ckt and then we have to programmed it using all the option of tank full or empety so on please let me know

    Reply
  37. M.saleem

    Hi,
    this water level circuit 8051 is very good.
    can you add under ground water pipe line water sensor. when the water comes in the under ground main pipe line. the moter will start automatically.

    Reply
  38. panaqta

    your circuit is very good. but i have three questions
    .1. cant we use two motors One for upper Tank and other for sump tank. (how can)
    2. if the water is not in the line the sum pump stop, (is it possible)
    3. when the water in the line it will star automatically

    Reply
  39. chinmay

    hello sir,
    would u plz let me know what short of precaution need to be taken for the water taken for use from the over head tank, as it is holding continous +5dc supply. also getting trouble in connecting the relay & the motor.
    waiting for yor reply.

    Reply
  40. khajjoo

    hello jojo
    i use this circuit to do my project,my problem is : if i do it in simulation what i put instead of water ?? thank you

    Reply
  41. khajjoo

    hello,
    i have some questions : 1- are the sensors are copper wire with 2.2k ohm?
    2- i use proteus program designer which require hex file and when i put the code in compiler there are many errors???
    3- in the simulation (proteus)what i put instead of water ??

    Reply
  42. Akshay

    Months ago, i tried this kind of concept, which senses the water level and controls the motor etc, the prototype worked very well, but the reason i ceased the actual implementation of the prototype was that i had a doubt about the risk of electric shock !!! When i googled about the minimum current that can be fatal, the results were shocking as well ! So please, guide me through this. i have completely working hardware (similar to yours) and software ready to be implemented…

    Reply
  43. Dhanasekaran

    there is a mistake in your code the second line of the code..

    to initiates P0 as the output port you had moved MOV P0,#11111111B

    this should be MOV P0,#00000000B I do not no exactly this is a mistake or

    not kindly check it back & reply with your comment.

    any hot the design is good.

    Reply
  44. S.Priyadharhini

    sir I am very interested in doing projects related to 8051. I have learnt it only in book I dont hav any idea abt the s/w used. can I get the compiler online give me advice to start a good poject. I am a beginer so help me

    Reply
    • jojo

      Hello Purnendu,

      We have lots of time constraints! I will definitely write an article on how to use MIDE 51. The assembly program for “water level controller” is quiet easy to understand. You just try reading it again and again (after having a good understanding of the instructions used)

      Reply
    • jojo

      Hello Abdul, you just cant replace 8051 with PIC or any other micro controller like AVR. The reason is difference in “hardware architecture”. You can consider replacing the AT89S51 (from Atmel) microcontroller we have used in the circuit with other controllers of similar architecture – say AT89c52 or some other controllers. The controller must be compatible with MCS-51 instruction set too. If you are planning to use PIC, you can do so by rewiring the circuit in accordance with PIC architecture. You will also have to rewrite the codes based on PIC instruction set.

      Reply
  45. purnendu

    ould you pls explain to me that where do we connect the -ve terminals. and i am also confused abt the connection of the motor which pumps the water.
    i will be eagerly waiting for your reply.

    Reply
    • jojo

      @ Purnendu,

      Your doubts are not that clear! Can you be more specific ? If you are talking abt the “ground” terminal, then all terminals with a standard “ground symbol”, can be wired together as a common ground.

      Reply
      • purnendu

        i mean how to connect motor and relay and how do i generate -ve voltage for starting microcontroller. plz explain in detail.

        Reply
  46. Kaguai George

    I didn’t manage to program the AT89S51,but was able to connect all other components. Can you please assist with the one you have already programmed and worked for you?
    You can reach me via my email.
    My email address is engeorgekkll@yahoo.com
    Reply

    Reply
  47. Ankit

    hello sir,
    this is very interesting. thank you for sharing this with all of us.
    unfortunately i am still in my freshman year of college and have not studied micro-controllers in so much depth.
    could you pls explain to me that where do we connect the -ve terminals. and i am also confused abt the connection of the motor which pumps the water.
    i will be eagerly waiting for your reply.
    thank you :)

    Reply
  48. Morea

    If i use IO card for input to the circuit or check the conditions then which type of IO card i should use i.e pull up (active high) or pull down (active low).

    Reply
  49. vivek

    Great nice design tell me one more think,
    It is possible to use ULN2003 IC in the place of the transistors i think by using this ic we don’t have to use resistance and with the help of it circuit will became compact & more easy , is i am thinking write ? please tell me sir/mamm and can we also use a LCD screen to display the levels of water in the tank and when the tank is FULL will display on screen then a alarm will also run. what u think please tell me.

    Reply
  50. Yesse

    Great!
    I real like this project .I want to conect this circuit to the screan for display will u tell me how should i coentct it

    Reply
  51. Kaguai George

    Great,
    What is that component,X1 11.2MHZ? And do i use IC used in the circuit diagram ie IC1 AT89S51 OR 8051,what the difference? want to be sure before purchasing one. Please also assist me on how to instal program in an IC. If need be,you can use my email.
    Most obliged.

    Reply
    • jojo

      @Kaguai George – X1 is the crystal used – this article may be of some help – http://mihirknows.blogspot.in/2008/06/microcontroller-crystals-basic.html

      8051 is the first micro controller developed by Intel, where as AT89S51 is a version of 8051 (with many advanced features) from Atmel. You may refer data sheets of AT89S51 and 8051 to know differences between both. I would recommend to buy AT89S51 (because you can use it for a wide variety of applications compared to 8051).

      You can program AT89S51 using an In System Programmer (ISP).

      Reply
      • Kaguai George

        I didn’t manage to program the AT89S51,but was able to connect all other components. Can you please assist with the one you have already programmed and worked for you?
        You can reach me via my email.
        My email address is engeorgekkll@yahoo.com

        Reply
    • admin Post author

      X1 is a crystal , it is used for generating the clock pulse for 8051.
      8051 is a general name and there are a large number of controllers belonging to this family.
      AT89S51 is one specific IC belonging to this family.You can use AT89S51, AT89C51 or anything like that. Go through the datasheets of these ICs for better understanding.

      Reply
      • Kaguai George

        I didn’t manage to program the AT89S51,but was able to connect all other components. Can you please assist with the one you have already programmed and worked for you?
        You can reach me via my email.
        My email address is engeorgekkll@yahoo.com

        Reply
  52. KALPESH CHHABHAIYA

    Hello Admin

    I have doubt about CJNE A,#11110000B,CJNE A,#11111000B,CJNE A,#11111100B,CJNE A,#11111110B.I think it should be like CJNE A,#00001111B,CJNE A,#00001111B,CJNE A,#00111111B,CJNE A,#01111111B.As we selected D7 TO D4, PLZ clear my doubt … :)

    Reply
    • admin Post author

      There is no problem in using CJNE A,#11110000B,CJNE A,#11111000B,CJNE A,#11111100B,CJNE A,#11111110B. when touches a particular probe, the corresponding transistor goes ON and the corresponding input port pin goes low.

      Your approach will also work, but the transistor interface between port 2 and the sensor probes should be modified so that the corresponding input port pin become high when the water touches the corresponding probe

      Reply
      • KALPESH CHHABHAIYA

        But bro i as we connected the sensor to pin P2.7 TO P2.4 so when we checking the statues then 11110000B will indicate that P2.0=0, P2.1=0, P2.2=0, P2.3=0, P2.4=1, P2.5=1, P6.1=1, P2.7=1 BUT actually we want to do reverse of it ……….. I think u may be able to understand what i want to explain we . 00001111B will indicate that P2.0=1, P2.1=1, P2.2=1, P2.3=1, P2.4=0, P2.5=0, P6.1=0, P2.7=0 …

        Reply
        • admin Post author

          I cannot fully understand what you mean. Is your doubt related to input interface or the comparison logic using CJNE. Pls make it clear. Any way i have again tested the circuit in real world and it works fine.

          Firstly 1s are written to all Port 2 pins.
          Suppose there is 3/4 level in the tank, then the condition of the port2 will be surely P2.0=1, P2.1=1, P2.2=1, P2.3=1, P2.4=1 and the rest will be zeros.

          Reply
          • KALPESH CHHABHAIYA

            Hello Admin

            I maid this project for my home automatic water level detector and maintainer.but your code have mistake as i already told you. you should have to check it one again. i changed it and my project is running now success full at my home ……… so plz take a note of it.

            kalpesh chhabhaiya
            (always with u)

          • Prudhvi

            hi kalpesh. can u send me the correct program for this circuit. plese its urgent i have review tomorrow, please help me

          • prudhvi

            hiii kalpesh. i need the working program for this project. please help me in it. i have a display tomorrow. please mail me the program its urgent

          • Mehul

            Hello sir
            is this program running without error?
            Means true?
            And i want to know about connection of motor with relay.
            Plz sir reply me

          • admas

            this system is very good and i will try to develop it
            plz send me full c code for this system instead of assembly

          • Ilham Khrisna Nugraha

            hello KALPESH CHHABHAIYA can u send me yr program? cause i have some problem with you,
            you can send me yr hex code or yr program listing

      • kiok

        smart ideas sir .can i use atmega16 instead 0f 8051.please advice through .and can i use AVR Studio to write the c program or send me the c program please

        Reply

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