Water level controller using 8051

Water level controller using 8051.

A water level controller based using 8051 is shown in this article. A lot of water level controller projects have been published in this website but the is the first one based on a microcontroller. This water level controller monitors the level of the over head tank  and automatically switches on the water pump when ever the level goes below a preset limit. The level of the over head tank is indicated using 5 leds and the pump is switched of when the over head tank is filled. The pump is not allowed to start if the water level in the sump tank is low and also the pump is switched off when the level inside the sump tank goes low during a pumping cycle. The circuit diagram of the water level controller is shown below.

The level sensor probes for the overhead tank are interfaced to the port 2 of the microcontroller through transistors. Have a look at the sensor probe arrangement for the overhead tank in Fig1. A positive voltage supply probe goes to the down bottom of the tank. The probes for sensing 1/4, 1/2, 3/4 and FULL levels are placed with equal spacing one by one above the bottom positive probe. Consider the topmost (full level) probe, its other end is connected to the base of transistor Q4 through resistor R16. Whenever water rises to the full level current flows into the base of transistor Q4 which makes it ON and so its collector voltage goes low. The collector of Q4 is connected to P2.4 and a low voltage at  P2.4 means the over head tank is not FULL. When water level goes below the full level probe, the base of Q2 becomes open making it OFF. Now its collector voltage goes high and high at P2.4 means the tank is not full. The same applies to other sensor probes (3/4, 1/2, 1/4) and the microprocessor understands the current level by scanning the port pins P2.4 ,P2.5, P2.6 and P2.7. All these port pin are high (all sensor probes are open) means the tank is empty.

Port pin P0.5 is used to control the pump. When ever it is required start pumping, the controller makes P0.5 low which makes transistor Q6 ON which in turn activates the relay K1 that switches the pump. Also the LED d6 glows indicating the motor is ON. LED D7 is the low sump indicator. When the water level in the sump tank goes low, the controller makes P0.7 low which makes LED D7 to glow. The circuit diagram of the water level controller is shown in the figure below.

Circuit diagram.

water level controller using 8051

Water level controller using 8051

Program.

MOV P2,#11111111B // initiates P2 as sensor input
MOV P0,#11111111B // initiates P2 as the output port
MOV A,#00000000B
MAIN:ACALL SMPCK // checks the level of the sump tank
MOV A,P2 // moves the current status of P2 tp A
CJNE A,#11110000B,LABEL1 // checks whether tank is full
SETB P0.1
SETB P0.2
SETB P0.3
SETB P0.4
CLR P0.0 // glows full level LED
SETB P0.5
LABEL1:MOV A,P2
CJNE A,#11111000B,LABEL2 // checks whether tank is 3/4
SETB P0.0
SETB P0.2
SETB P0.3
SETB P0.4
CLR P0.1 // glows 3/4 level LED
LABEL2:MOV A,P2
CJNE A,#11111100B,LABEL3 // checks whether tank is 1/2
SETB P0.0
SETB P0.1
SETB P0.3
SETB P0.4
CLR P0.2 // glows 1/2 level LED
LABEL3:MOV A,P2
CJNE A,#11111110B,LABEL4 // checks whether tank is 1/4
SETB P0.0
SETB P0.1
SETB P0.2
SETB P0.4
CLR P0.3 // glows 1/4 level LED
JB P0.6,LABEL4
CLR P0.5 // switches motor ON
LABEL4:MOV A,P2
CJNE A,#11111111B,MAIN // checks whether tank is empty
SETB P0.0
SETB P0.1
SETB P0.2
SETB P0.3
CLR P0.4 // glows EMPTY LED
JB P0.6,MAIN // checks whether sump is low
CLR P0.5 // switches motor ON
SJMP MAIN
SMPCK:JB P0.6,LABEL5 // checks whether sump is low
SETB P0.7 // extinguishes the sump low indicator LED
SJMP LABEL6
LABEL5:SETB P0.5 // switches the pump OFF
CLR P0.7 // glows sump low indicator LED
LABEL6:RET
END

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146 Responses to “Water level controller using 8051”

  • Jac_eX says:

    Hi,

    Just me going through the diagram thought to myself that it could be useful to get a list of components with exact details, am new to it so quite challenging that is for me now, for example that X1 is 11.2MHz its only specification ?
    And one more thing, does the relay has to be 200ohms ? hard to find one, biggest I seen in this voltage is 170 and out of stock at the moment, available 67ohm, is there way around, let me know ASAp please.

    Jac

  • Areeb says:

    Can anyone tell me how does this motor works ?

  • Rahul says:

    Sir, I constructed this circuit and its working fine. But I am worried about power supply circuit, will it be able to work 24×7 the whole year? And which is better, using a transformer or a smps power supply along with voltage regulator?

  • Siddhi says:

    Hello can you please mail me the perfect code with the output.Thanks

  • chinedu says:

    Pls,i want to carry out this project help me with materials.Thank you,Sir.

  • imam says:

    Hello….
    I’m newbie in microcntrol.
    I using reads51.
    Why that program is not correct?
    Always at ” MOV P0,#11111111B // initiates P2 as the output port “.

  • Revrooo says:

    i will like to carry out this project myself,please can i get more matrials this.thanks

  • AD says:

    can u provide me with matlab code. send to my email thank u :)

  • Sajib says:

    can u send me the proteus view of this circuit? plz.

  • Hiren says:

    Can anyone plzz send me the correct program file for this project because given program is not working.
    Thanks,
    Hiren

  • gragn says:

    i need afull project on this title with a ckt diagram

  • kumara raja says:

    sir making total kit all are ok sump,motor,leds,and relay but
    over head tank sensors,leds not working
    pls give me solutions pls sir
    pls give me reply

  • kumara raja says:

    pls sir i have make total kit but not responding over head tank
    xtal 11.0592 pls rectify this

  • Nandhu says:

    sir yours 8051 projects are very nice. But i have some doubt. How to program my microcontroller plz rly answer

  • rajana says:

    By setting P0 to 11111111B, the cathode of LED is floating (high impedance). This is open drain configuration?

  • rajanna says:

    respected sir

    i want wire less water level controller project circuit diagram with detail and using 8051 water level controller details &pcb layout

  • Denisjan says:

    Can somebody convert the program to C language, i cant understand assembly language, tnx :)

    • Nili says:

      Can anyone plzz send me the c language program of this water level project as i hav to merge it to control gate.

  • nyilae says:

    Can you please send the whole code/program( in C language if possible) and flowchart? Thank you.

  • raja raja cholan says:

    please send me the whole program and working on the basis of block diagram and all the details of water level controller using 8051…plzzzz sir

  • MAHESHPAWAR says:

    sir send me more information about this project.

  • supriya singh says:

    please send me the whole program and working on the basis of block diagram and all the details of water level controller using 8051…plzzzz sir

  • Tesfaye Buta says:

    Please send to my mail with complete report of the project with manual “ON

  • saranya says:

    RESPECTED SIR,
    can you send me the full program and PCB layout of this circuit

  • karthik says:

    Dear sir,

    REQUEST:::::

    Please give me a circuit with manual “ON”……

    Please send to my mail with complete report of the project with manual “ON”

  • anjali says:

    Sir, this project is nice,I want to make it as a hobby project.. can you please send some more information on this,.. pleasing you,send some more information

  • anjali says:

    Sir could u please send me more theory and progrm for my email…thanks for the advance..

  • NG says:

    hello sir,could you please send me full program on above 8051 water level sensor?
    thanks in advanced

  • Meliza Dsilva says:

    hello sir,
    plz..do send me more information on this.

  • kishorekumar says:

    hello sir,
    I want to more information about water level controller using 8051 pls sir send me full program n more information of this project

  • Naeem says:

    Dear

    Please send me hex file of water lever controller on my email address I am very thankful to you.

  • Me its me says:

    We are interested in doing this project on water level indicator using 8051 micro controller…Sir can u please send further details and much more information about this very topic.

  • Gezahegn says:

    I am very surprised with your circuit posted; but how we can change the programming language used here to c-language program ?

    In addition i need help concerning brief explanation

    10 Q 4 ur consideration!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

  • sushil says:

    Hello kalpesh sir
    I want to review ur program plz send me ur program & I want to know that did u any change made in this circuit?

  • Dilkhush says:

    Sir,can you give more detail about circuit diagram and how should we connect motor.or can you give simple circuit diagram to connect i/p and o/p in microcontroller and water tank and motor.

  • uthaya kumar says:

    sir i want to know about this project.please send me the detailed explanation about it.

  • Brandon says:

    Dear Friend , Can i have the full program for this “Water level Controller using 8051″ . can i have it sent to my email . Thank you very much please .

  • hello sir,
    I want to more information about water level controller using 8051 pls sir send me info. to my mail. Thanks….

  • pavan says:

    sir what type of software was used for this program.

  • prakash says:

    nice info.. thank you for such regarding content..

  • Nana Rey says:

    hello sir… I need a full program n more information of this project… Thank you so much :))

  • vahid says:

    hi. i need full program level controller using 8051 . so will u plz send to my mail id.

  • I want to make project on water level measuring , monitoring & controlling.so please give me more information about it.

  • ganeshreddy says:

    I wanna make automatic water
    level controller .please send me
    relevant information ,procedure
    circuit ,pics ,videos expecting
    ur cooperation. Can anyone please tell me the
    connection of relay with the
    motor if it is to operate at
    220/240 V ?
    thank u
    Reply

  • s.keerthiga says:

    Hi ……I need ful information ab water level controller using 8051…..so will u plz send 2 my mail ID

  • Miss Hussain says:

    Hello.can I please gt a complete report on how to make the water level controller?
    I m very new to the concept of microprocesormand microcontroller.can I please now wht exactly are sensors?
    Thank u

  • Kiran biradar says:

    I want 2 know the detail information about ‘water pump operated on mobile’ for my project, pls snd it on my mail.

  • jothi says:

    i want more project details about 8051.ple send my mail

  • devipriya says:

    i need more information.so can you send to my mail pls…

  • Gimba Yaqubo says:

    Can anyone please tell me the connection of relay with the motor if it is to operate at 220/240 V ?

  • Sam Victor says:

    Pls attach a document on this project and send to me am ready to pay. I want to do it in my final year project. Thanks

  • Murali krishna says:

    I wanna make automatic water level controller .please send me relevant information ,procedure circuit ,pics ,videos expecting ur cooperation
    thank u.

  • Murali krishna says:

    I wanna make automatic water level controller .please send me relevant information ,procedure circuit ,pics ,videos expecting ur cooperation
    thank u

  • Murali krishna says:

    I wanna make automatic water level controller .please send me relevant information ,procedure circuit ,pics ,videos
    thank u

  • victor lab says:

    KALPESH CHHABHAIYA
    Pls can you snd a display pix of urs to my mail. Pls apart from d code modification, wht other modification did u do?

  • Sai Krishna says:

    Sir,
    Can u please send me a detailed report on this project… i would like to undertake this project…. i would really appreciate it if you could do it at the earliset

  • Chandasaheb Patel says:

    Hey i need full report on the water level controlling using 8051

  • Mehul says:

    Hi kalpesh
    can you send me the true program?

  • sathya says:

    sir,
    please provide me more information about water level sensing and how probes does the job in sensing the water. Please explain the principle of sensing the water level at various level.
    thank you,
    sathya.

  • shaikh b.d, says:

    sir i need to know which program assemble to generate hex code,plz give me idea

  • apoorv jain says:

    sir i want to know that can i use pic c compiler for this coding . if not which compiler i can use for generating its hex code or else u provide me the hex code.

  • nandhakumar says:

    Hai

  • krishan says:

    kaya hum at89s51 ki jagah per at89c51 use kar sakte h please reply my gmail id krishank652@gmail.com

  • panaqta says:

    Respected sir, This circuit is very very good but i want to use this circuit with main water line (when the water is available in a line . the motor will start automatically?
    is it possible ????
    Best Regards
    M.saleem
    panaqta

  • Pradip says:

    Dear Sir/Madam,
    I have convert program in to hex file & load it, but it’s not working. So if you give me hex file for the same ckt than it will helpful to me.
    Thank you

  • Yesse says:

    Hi
    if i use this program to picaxe as it is . will it work.

  • Yesse says:

    Hello sir
    is there any problem if i use picaxe instead of microcontrolle.

  • sarfraz says:

    can we get 8051 microcontroller with allready programmed or we have to construct the ckt and then we have to programmed it using all the option of tank full or empety so on please let me know

  • M.saleem says:

    can you do the addission

  • M.saleem says:

    Hi,
    this water level circuit 8051 is very good.
    can you add under ground water pipe line water sensor. when the water comes in the under ground main pipe line. the moter will start automatically.

  • `JOSEPH MATHEW says:

    how much it cost? :)

  • `JOSEPH MATHEW says:

    can i get the embedded c program for this water level controller?

  • demz says:

    can i used a at89s52 instead of at89s51?
    is the program working?
    i want to implement this diagram

  • santosh jha says:

    i need help ….. i want pcb layout please anyone can help me
    contact no 9664531396

  • Haroon says:

    hello,i need the complete procedure in implementing water level indicator using 8051 with Multisim software.

  • panaqta says:

    your circuit is very good. but i have three questions
    .1. cant we use two motors One for upper Tank and other for sump tank. (how can)
    2. if the water is not in the line the sum pump stop, (is it possible)
    3. when the water in the line it will star automatically

  • chinmay says:

    hello sir,
    would u plz let me know what short of precaution need to be taken for the water taken for use from the over head tank, as it is holding continous +5dc supply. also getting trouble in connecting the relay & the motor.
    waiting for yor reply.

  • $oham says:

    hello jojo,
    can u plz tell what will be the changes in this project if we use 2 sump tank instead of 1

  • khajjoo says:

    hello jojo
    i use this circuit to do my project,my problem is : if i do it in simulation what i put instead of water ?? thank you

  • khajjoo says:

    hello,
    i have some questions : 1- are the sensors are copper wire with 2.2k ohm?
    2- i use proteus program designer which require hex file and when i put the code in compiler there are many errors???
    3- in the simulation (proteus)what i put instead of water ??

  • Akshay says:

    Months ago, i tried this kind of concept, which senses the water level and controls the motor etc, the prototype worked very well, but the reason i ceased the actual implementation of the prototype was that i had a doubt about the risk of electric shock !!! When i googled about the minimum current that can be fatal, the results were shocking as well ! So please, guide me through this. i have completely working hardware (similar to yours) and software ready to be implemented…

  • Dhanasekaran says:

    there is a mistake in your code the second line of the code..

    to initiates P0 as the output port you had moved MOV P0,#11111111B

    this should be MOV P0,#00000000B I do not no exactly this is a mistake or

    not kindly check it back & reply with your comment.

    any hot the design is good.

  • S.Priyadharhini says:

    sir I am very interested in doing projects related to 8051. I have learnt it only in book I dont hav any idea abt the s/w used. can I get the compiler online give me advice to start a good poject. I am a beginer so help me

  • purnendu says:

    i am unable to convert c file to hex file plz tell me procedures to convert in MIDE5 compiler, also send me a good c program for water level controller
    MY email is purnendukumar50@gmail.com

    • jojo says:

      Hello Purnendu,

      We have lots of time constraints! I will definitely write an article on how to use MIDE 51. The assembly program for “water level controller” is quiet easy to understand. You just try reading it again and again (after having a good understanding of the instructions used)

  • abdul says:

    than you
    if I change 8051 with pic 16f84a is there any change in code

    • jojo says:

      Hello Abdul, you just cant replace 8051 with PIC or any other micro controller like AVR. The reason is difference in “hardware architecture”. You can consider replacing the AT89S51 (from Atmel) microcontroller we have used in the circuit with other controllers of similar architecture – say AT89c52 or some other controllers. The controller must be compatible with MCS-51 instruction set too. If you are planning to use PIC, you can do so by rewiring the circuit in accordance with PIC architecture. You will also have to rewrite the codes based on PIC instruction set.

    • suhail says:

      ya, there is a change in writing program

  • purnendu says:

    ould you pls explain to me that where do we connect the -ve terminals. and i am also confused abt the connection of the motor which pumps the water.
    i will be eagerly waiting for your reply.

    • jojo says:

      @ Purnendu,

      Your doubts are not that clear! Can you be more specific ? If you are talking abt the “ground” terminal, then all terminals with a standard “ground symbol”, can be wired together as a common ground.

      • purnendu says:

        i mean how to connect motor and relay and how do i generate -ve voltage for starting microcontroller. plz explain in detail.

  • purnendu says:

    plz send me hex code for AT89S51 for this water level controller circuit
    http://www.circuitstoday.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/water-level-controller-8051.png

    its very urgent, i need it today

  • purnendu says:

    plz send me hex code for AT89S51 for this water level controller circuit
    http://www.circuitstoday.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/water-level-controller-8051.png

  • Kaguai George says:

    I didn’t manage to program the AT89S51,but was able to connect all other components. Can you please assist with the one you have already programmed and worked for you?
    You can reach me via my email.
    My email address is engeorgekkll@yahoo.com
    Reply

  • Ankit says:

    hello sir,
    this is very interesting. thank you for sharing this with all of us.
    unfortunately i am still in my freshman year of college and have not studied micro-controllers in so much depth.
    could you pls explain to me that where do we connect the -ve terminals. and i am also confused abt the connection of the motor which pumps the water.
    i will be eagerly waiting for your reply.
    thank you :)

  • Manikanta Kumar says:

    hi, can u post “Remote Controlling of Home Appliances using GSM (SMS Technology)” project??

  • santosh says:

    Its simple and easy….i took Rs 400 for me to construct this project….love it…thanks….

  • kamesh says:

    how much the components costs in south india

  • need clear explination about project

  • Morea says:

    If i use IO card for input to the circuit or check the conditions then which type of IO card i should use i.e pull up (active high) or pull down (active low).

  • vivek says:

    Great nice design tell me one more think,
    It is possible to use ULN2003 IC in the place of the transistors i think by using this ic we don’t have to use resistance and with the help of it circuit will became compact & more easy , is i am thinking write ? please tell me sir/mamm and can we also use a LCD screen to display the levels of water in the tank and when the tank is FULL will display on screen then a alarm will also run. what u think please tell me.

  • meher says:

    thank u very much.

  • almass says:

    i need a c program code for these abive assembly language program

  • vijay kumar says:

    pls giv the other app of this project.

  • riksha says:

    i need clear explanation of this project…. can u tell me clearly…

  • Yesse says:

    Great!
    I real like this project .I want to conect this circuit to the screan for display will u tell me how should i coentct it

  • pirti notani says:

    admin…. if u have its connection on pcb can u upload it plz… i need it

  • Kaguai George says:

    Great,
    What is that component,X1 11.2MHZ? And do i use IC used in the circuit diagram ie IC1 AT89S51 OR 8051,what the difference? want to be sure before purchasing one. Please also assist me on how to instal program in an IC. If need be,you can use my email.
    Most obliged.

    • jojo says:

      @Kaguai George – X1 is the crystal used – this article may be of some help – http://mihirknows.blogspot.in/2008/06/microcontroller-crystals-basic.html

      8051 is the first micro controller developed by Intel, where as AT89S51 is a version of 8051 (with many advanced features) from Atmel. You may refer data sheets of AT89S51 and 8051 to know differences between both. I would recommend to buy AT89S51 (because you can use it for a wide variety of applications compared to 8051).

      You can program AT89S51 using an In System Programmer (ISP).

      • Kaguai George says:

        I didn’t manage to program the AT89S51,but was able to connect all other components. Can you please assist with the one you have already programmed and worked for you?
        You can reach me via my email.
        My email address is engeorgekkll@yahoo.com

    • admin says:

      X1 is a crystal , it is used for generating the clock pulse for 8051.
      8051 is a general name and there are a large number of controllers belonging to this family.
      AT89S51 is one specific IC belonging to this family.You can use AT89S51, AT89C51 or anything like that. Go through the datasheets of these ICs for better understanding.

      • Kaguai George says:

        I didn’t manage to program the AT89S51,but was able to connect all other components. Can you please assist with the one you have already programmed and worked for you?
        You can reach me via my email.
        My email address is engeorgekkll@yahoo.com

  • AND YA u may forgot to connect all 2.2k (R9,R10,R11,R12) to connect at Vcc +5 AT Upper terminal which is floating right now……….

  • Hello Admin

    I have doubt about CJNE A,#11110000B,CJNE A,#11111000B,CJNE A,#11111100B,CJNE A,#11111110B.I think it should be like CJNE A,#00001111B,CJNE A,#00001111B,CJNE A,#00111111B,CJNE A,#01111111B.As we selected D7 TO D4, PLZ clear my doubt … :)

    • admin says:

      There is no problem in using CJNE A,#11110000B,CJNE A,#11111000B,CJNE A,#11111100B,CJNE A,#11111110B. when touches a particular probe, the corresponding transistor goes ON and the corresponding input port pin goes low.

      Your approach will also work, but the transistor interface between port 2 and the sensor probes should be modified so that the corresponding input port pin become high when the water touches the corresponding probe

      • But bro i as we connected the sensor to pin P2.7 TO P2.4 so when we checking the statues then 11110000B will indicate that P2.0=0, P2.1=0, P2.2=0, P2.3=0, P2.4=1, P2.5=1, P6.1=1, P2.7=1 BUT actually we want to do reverse of it ……….. I think u may be able to understand what i want to explain we . 00001111B will indicate that P2.0=1, P2.1=1, P2.2=1, P2.3=1, P2.4=0, P2.5=0, P6.1=0, P2.7=0 …

        • admin says:

          I cannot fully understand what you mean. Is your doubt related to input interface or the comparison logic using CJNE. Pls make it clear. Any way i have again tested the circuit in real world and it works fine.

          Firstly 1s are written to all Port 2 pins.
          Suppose there is 3/4 level in the tank, then the condition of the port2 will be surely P2.0=1, P2.1=1, P2.2=1, P2.3=1, P2.4=1 and the rest will be zeros.

          • Hello Admin

            I maid this project for my home automatic water level detector and maintainer.but your code have mistake as i already told you. you should have to check it one again. i changed it and my project is running now success full at my home ……… so plz take a note of it.

            kalpesh chhabhaiya
            (always with u)

          • Prudhvi says:

            hi kalpesh. can u send me the correct program for this circuit. plese its urgent i have review tomorrow, please help me

          • prudhvi says:

            hiii kalpesh. i need the working program for this project. please help me in it. i have a display tomorrow. please mail me the program its urgent

          • Mehul says:

            Hello sir
            is this program running without error?
            Means true?
            And i want to know about connection of motor with relay.
            Plz sir reply me

        • jacob says:

          you are correct. i obtained the output by doing as you mentioned

          • admas says:

            this system is very good and i will try to develop it
            plz send me full c code for this system instead of assembly

          • Ilham Khrisna Nugraha says:

            hello KALPESH CHHABHAIYA can u send me yr program? cause i have some problem with you,
            you can send me yr hex code or yr program listing

      • kiok says:

        smart ideas sir .can i use atmega16 instead 0f 8051.please advice through .and can i use AVR Studio to write the c program or send me the c program please