We have developed this article as a beginners guide for Arduino.  We have compiled many of our arduino articles to help you understand the board better and begin your first serious project using Arduino. So let’s begin.

Ever thought of working with microcontrollers, but resisted due to lack of knowledge about them?
Ever made a futile attempt of reading a whole microcontroller datasheet?
Ever found hard learning (memorizing) the assembly syntax and keywords?
Can’t afford to buy the costly USB programmers for your microcontrollers?

Get ready.! Arduino answers your laments!

What is Arduino?:

Well, first let me explain what arduino exactly is. Arduino in general is a opensource platform targetting hobbiysts. Most of us using the interent would have came across the word “opensouce”. Opensource is a methodology where, the developers of a software/hardware give the end user access to their end product’s design and implementation. That means the end user has rights to modify/change the way a software looks/works and redistribute it. Examples of opensource software are Linux operating system, freePCB, openBSD etc [Remember: MS Windows is not an opensource software]. Coming to arduino, arduino is an opensource hardware and software platform which uses Atmel microcontroller as core hardware component and Java as a core software language and which is used to control LEDs, Motors,displays and any hobby projects. The main aim of arduino project is to make everyone try microcontrollers – you don’t even have to care what controller is used. Its that simple!

Arduino – Hardware:

The hardware part of arduino contains a development board made in Italy.(Since it is a opensource hardware, they provide the schematics and PCB files in Eagle at the arduino website – you are free to download and make your own board.)
Below is a example board (Arduino UNO)  – I’ve labeled the parts 🙂


Just plug-it into your computer’s USB port and download the program into the controller board from your computer and the board can be used in the required application.

Arduino – Software:

The arduino software consists of two parts as shown

Bootloader is a little piece of code residing inside the microcontroller which makes the controller special and gives it the power of integration to the arduino IDE and the arduino board. With the bootloader erased, when you try to program from the IDE, the controller won’t understand anything! In simple words, the bootloader acts as a translator between the controller and the arduino IDE. You have to load the bootloader in to the controller (from a different programmer) before integrating it with the arduino board.

IDE(Integrated Development Environment):
The arduino IDE is installed in the computer. The IDE has a compiler, serial monitor etc. Arduino language is a variant of c++ – atleast it looks like c++ programs. Program is written, compiled and uploaded from the IDE to the board.The language is really really simple!. The IDE has the options to select from different versions of arduino board with different controllers and also has options to select the particular communication port where the arduino board is connected.

Arduino Shields:

Shields are mountable things on arduino board which enables easy interfacing of modules such as LCD, ethernet etc., elimating the need for wires. Ther are huge variety of shields for almost all applications.

Buying options:

The arduino website sells the board made in Italy and alternatively you can also buy from local distributers. List of distributers is listed in the arduino website. There are many clones which are compatible with the arduino IDE made by arduino users. Some clones resemble the arduino board, and some clones have integrated peripherals too! (Like LDR, IR receiver, extra tactile switches and LEDs etc.)

So, what are you waiting for go grab a arduino board and start your research 😀

Arduino website: www.arduino.cc

Arduino Projects for you

We have developed many arduino projects that any hobbyist or student can try easily. We have listed all of them together in a single article here – Arduino Projects and Circuits – List

All these projects are developed and tested by our engineering team. You can buy the components and try them with confidence.



  1. rahul rajan

    can u give me simple circuit and code for light searching robot and edge avoiding robot using arduino atmega 328…plz mail me about both the projects…..hoping for your reply and suggetions

  2. Nice article….Thank u….It means that we can write code on arduino ? No need to write code in 8051 programming language?

    • @Sakshi – yes. You will take only less than an hour to get familiar with Arduino and blink an LED

  3. Nelson Rajaratna

    Thanks for the details. But I think those are not enough. Could you please provide more details with Arduino circuits. More hobbyist will be benefited.



  4. Abuyi M. J

    I hav understood your clear Explanations Sir, But would like to make my own local Microcontroller(uC)/ Arduino; can you pls help me on how to do that! Thanks in Anticipation. Urs blogger.

  5. Good work !!

    You are doing such an awesome job of enlightening the people about these user friendly devices and bringing them into this brilliant field. Keep up the good work.

    All the best !! 🙂

  6. oh I hav an atmel 8051 controller board with an ISP kit but I dont hav serial port rs232 port in my pc what can I do

    • Anish

      All PCs bought before 2010 mostly have serial port. If your PC is a new one, then you can buy a Serial port (DB9 connector) PCI card and integrate it to your PC (Hope there is some PCI slots left)

  7. @Whisker: I am afraid its either way pal. The IC acts as serial to USB converter when data flows from the microcontroller to the computer and USB to serial converter when data flows in reverse direction!

  8. SrihariRao

    thanks for the info.. want more posts like this. 🙂

  9. In the board’s picture, is the USB to serial converter wrongly named as serial-to-USB converter?