As the world grows to be digitally dependent, even doors can now be designed to be secure and safe. The digital version of the lock and key holds a lot of promising features. The digital door lock is securely placed with passwords. However, this may also attract unethical hackers, therefore, an extra layer of security is also required.
In this electronics project-based article, we have created a digital door lock that is controlled using a basic controller, the 8051 microcontrollers. The aim of this article is to understand the fundamental working principle behind a digital door lock.
What is a Digital Door Lock?
The Digital Door Lock in general is a password-based electronic code lock. In this project, we have designed the digital door lock using an 8051 microcontroller, a keypad, and a 12-volt dc relay. In this article, we have designed a simple digital door lock using 8051 -which can be used as a security checking system to limit access to an area/room only for certain individuals with the password. So our digital door lock project can be called with a very wide range of names like a digital combination lock using 8051 or a digital security code lock using 8051 microcontrollers or a password security system using 8051 or an electronic code lock or a digital code lock using 8051. People call this kind of a “security system” with different names, though all of them mean to build a basic password-based security system using a microcontroller like 8051 or AVR or PIC or Arduino (a controller of choice) with extra features like automatic door lock/opening facility, sound alarm, GSM based SMS alert, etc.
Digital Door Lock – Project Summary
Our Digital Code Lock project – is a simple electronic number lock system or an electronic combination lock using 8051 – which has a preset 5 digit password stored inside the program. The system collects 5 digit user input, compares the user input with the preset password inside the program, and if the user input and stored password matches, access will be granted (by opening the door with the help of relay for a few seconds and closing it automatically after the stipulated time). If there is a mismatch between user input and stored password, access will be denied (by not opening the closed door – that is by keeping the relay in OFF position)
Note:- We have a wonderful collection of 8051 projects which we have designed and published previously. Take a look If you are interested in building 8051 based applications and systems yourself! It’s a lot of fun to learn and build new kinds of stuff.
Let’s get to building our password-based digital door lock now. The circuit diagram of the digital code lock is given below. Assemble the circuit as shown in the diagram.
Password based Digital Door Lock/Electronic Code Lock – Circuit Diagram
|8051 – AT89S51 – 1||16×2 LCD Module – 1|
|4X4 Keypad – 1||10K Resistor Network – 1|
|12V Relay – 1|
|Transistor – BC548 – 1||Diode – 1N4007 – 1|
|Push Button Switch – 1||Crystal – 11.059Mhz – 1|
|33pF -2||0.1uF -1|
|10K Ohm – 1||100 Ohm -1|
|8.2K Ohm – 1||330 Ohm -1|
|4.7K Ohm – 1|
Make the connections of the digital code lock project as shown in the circuit diagram. We have explained the connections below.
Keypad to 8051 – In this particular electronic code lock project, we have interfaced a 4×4 keypad to Port 3 of 8051 microcontroller. Row pins are connected from P3.0 to P3.3, whereas Column pins are connected from P3.4 to P3.7. Read our tutorial on interfacing keypad to 8051 – to learn how keypad is connected to 8051 and how keypresses are identified and displayed.
16×2 LCD Module to 8051 – We are using a 16×2 lcd module to display the status messages of the project. We have connected this LCD module in 8 bit mode (using 8 data lines). The 8 data lines are connected to Port 0 of 8051. An external pull-up resistance is connected using a 10K Resistor Network (with 8 pins) at Port 0 to interface the 8 data lines of LCD. The LCD controlling pins RS, R/W, and E are connected to Port 2 pins P2.7, P2.6, and P2.5 respectively. Read our tutorial on interfacing LCD to 8051 – to learn how to connect the LCD module to 8051 properly and also to learn how to display text messages on the LCD module perfectly.
Push button switch – is used to setup reset circuit of 8051 and Crystal is used to provide necessary clock to 8051.
Relay – a 12V SPDT relay is used for the digital door lock project and is connected to P2.0. A transistor (BC548) – is used to drive the relay with necessary current.
Working of the Digital Door Lock Circuit
The objective of the Digital Door Lock project is to allow access to people who input the 5 digit password correctly and to not allow access to people who input passwords wrongly. We use a 4×4 Keypad to input digits to the microcontroller and a 12V relay is used to control the electronic solenoid lock (not shown in the circuit diagram) of the door. The password is stored inside the 8051 programs (program memory). In the example program given below, we use password 12345 and is stored in the program memory location with the label – PASSW.
PASSW: DB 49D,50D,51D,52D,53D,0 // Decimal equivalent of 1,2,3,4,5 is stored in address label PASSW
When we turn power supplies ON, the system will turn ON with a message on the LCD screen – “Password-Based Security System”. Once the bootup process is complete, the system will ask to “Input 5 Digits”. The user has to input 5 digits consecutively after this message appears on the LCD screen. Once 5 digits are entered, the system will start checking the password (by comparing the input 5 digits with the stored password). Before the subroutine to check password (comparison subroutine – with the label – CHECK_PASSWORD) begins, a status message “Checking Password” will be displayed on the LCD module. The password checking subroutine will compare each entered digit – one by one and if all the 5 digits are entered correctly (i.e each entered digit matches with the stored password in order) the system will begin the process of allowing access to the user by turning ON the relay( achieved with SETB P2.0 command in the program). Two messages will be displayed on the LCD screen – “Access Granted” and “Door Opens”. The relay will be turned OFF with command CLR P2.0 after a few seconds (that is in the next iteration of the MAIN Program commands) If the password entered is wrong, the system will not turn ON the relay and a message “Wrong Password” – “Access Denied” will be displayed on the LCD screen.
Program/ Code – Password Based Security System
RS EQU P2.7 RW EQU P2.6 E EQU P2.5 SEL EQU 41H ORG 000H CLR P2.0 MOV TMOD,#00100001B MOV TH1,#253D MOV SCON,#50H SETB TR1 ACALL LCD_INIT MOV DPTR,#TEXT1 ACALL LCD_OUT ACALL LINE2 MOV DPTR,#TEXT2 ACALL LCD_OUT MAIN:ACALL LCD_INIT MOV DPTR,#TEXT1 ACALL LCD_OUT ACALL LINE2 MOV DPTR,#TEXT2 CLR P2.0 ACALL LCD_OUT ACALL DELAY1 ACALL DELAY1 ACALL READ_KEYPRESS ACALL LINE1 MOV DPTR,#CHKMSG ACALL LCD_OUT ACALL DELAY1 ACALL CHECK_PASSWORD SJMP MAIN LCD_INIT: MOV DPTR,#INIT_COMMANDS SETB SEL ACALL LCD_OUT CLR SEL RET LCD_OUT: CLR A MOVC A,@A+DPTR JZ EXIT INC DPTR JB SEL,CMD ACALL DATA_WRITE SJMP LCD_OUT CMD: ACALL CMD_WRITE SJMP LCD_OUT EXIT: RET LINE2:MOV A,#0C0H ACALL CMD_WRITE RET LINE1: MOV A,#80H ACALL CMD_WRITE RET CLRSCR: MOV A,#01H ACALL CMD_WRITE RET CMD_WRITE: MOV P0,A CLR RS CLR RW SETB E CLR E ACALL DELAY RET DATA_WRITE:MOV P0,A SETB RS CLR RW SETB E CLR E ACALL DELAY RET DELAY: CLR E CLR RS SETB RW MOV P0,#0FFh SETB E MOV A,P0 JB ACC.7,DELAY CLR E CLR RW RET DELAY1:MOV R3,#46D BACK: MOV TH0,#00000000B MOV TL0,#00000000B SETB TR0 HERE1: JNB TF0,HERE1 CLR TR0 CLR TF0 DJNZ R3,BACK RET DELAY2: MOV R3,#250D BACK2: MOV TH0,#0FCH MOV TL0,#018H SETB TR0 HERE2: JNB TF0,HERE2 CLR TR0 CLR TF0 DJNZ R3,BACK2 RET READ_KEYPRESS: ACALL CLRSCR ACALL LINE1 MOV DPTR,#IPMSG ACALL LCD_OUT ACALL LINE2 MOV R0,#5D MOV R1,#160D ROTATE:ACALL KEY_SCAN MOV @R1,A ACALL DATA_WRITE ACALL DELAY2 INC R1 DJNZ R0,ROTATE RET CHECK_PASSWORD:MOV R0,#5D MOV R1,#160D MOV DPTR,#PASSW RPT:CLR A MOVC A,@A+DPTR XRL A,@R1 JNZ FAIL INC R1 INC DPTR DJNZ R0,RPT ACALL CLRSCR ACALL LINE1 MOV DPTR,#TEXT_S1 ACALL LCD_OUT ACALL LINE2 ACALL DELAY1 SETB P2.0 MOV DPTR,#TEXT_S2 ACALL LCD_OUT ACALL DELAY1 SJMP GOBACK FAIL:ACALL CLRSCR ACALL LINE1 MOV DPTR,#TEXT_F1 ACALL LCD_OUT ACALL DELAY1 ACALL LINE2 MOV DPTR,#TEXT_F2 ACALL LCD_OUT ACALL DELAY1 GOBACK:RET KEY_SCAN:MOV P3,#11111111B CLR P3.0 JB P3.4, NEXT1 MOV A,#49D RET NEXT1:JB P3.5,NEXT2 MOV A,#50D RET NEXT2: JB P3.6,NEXT3 MOV A,#51D RET NEXT3: JB P3.7,NEXT4 MOV A,#65D RET NEXT4:SETB P3.0 CLR P3.1 JB P3.4, NEXT5 MOV A,#52D RET NEXT5:JB P3.5,NEXT6 MOV A,#53D RET NEXT6: JB P3.6,NEXT7 MOV A,#54D RET NEXT7: JB P3.7,NEXT8 MOV A,#66D RET NEXT8:SETB P3.1 CLR P3.2 JB P3.4, NEXT9 MOV A,#55D RET NEXT9:JB P3.5,NEXT10 MOV A,#56D RET NEXT10: JB P3.6,NEXT11 MOV A,#57D RET NEXT11: JB P3.7,NEXT12 MOV A,#67D RET NEXT12:SETB P3.2 CLR P3.3 JB P3.4, NEXT13 MOV A,#42D RET NEXT13:JB P3.5,NEXT14 MOV A,#48D RET NEXT14: JB P3.6,NEXT15 MOV A,#35D RET NEXT15: JB P3.7,NEXT16 MOV A,#68D RET NEXT16:LJMP KEY_SCAN INIT_COMMANDS: DB 0CH,01H,06H,80H,3CH,0 TEXT1: DB "PASSWORD BASED",0 TEXT2: DB "SECURITY SYSTEM",0 IPMSG: DB "INPUT 5 DIGITS",0 CHKMSG: DB "CHECKING PASSWORD",0 TEXT_S1: DB "ACCESS - GRANTED",0 TEXT_S2: DB "DOOR OPENED",0 TEXT_F1: DB "WRONG PASSWORD",0 TEXT_F2: DB "ACCESS DENIED",0 PASSW: DB 49D,50D,51D,52D,53D,0 END
The program is written in assembly language. The important aspects and subroutines of the program are explained below.
KEY_SCAN – is the subroutine to identify a keypress. The method of column scanning is employed in identifying the pressed key. The pressed key is identified and is assigned a decimal equivalent value (ASCII value) of the pressed key. You may read the tutorial on the keypad to 8051 – interfacing to learn more about programming.
READ_KEYPRESS – is the subroutine to collect user inputs. A counter is set up using register R0 to count 5 times (this will limit the user input collection to the first 5 key presses). Register R1 is assigned address location 160D. The collected user inputs are saved in address location starting from 160D. This location is incremented successively using INC R1 – command of 8051. So first user input is stored in 160D, second user input in 161D, third in 162D, fourth in 163D, and fifth user input in 164D. These address locations are accessed using register R1 via the indirect addressing method.
Note:- There are two delay routines written in the program. DELAY1 – is used as a delay for outputting messages on the LCD module properly. After sending a message/data to the LCD module, DELAY1 is called so that the message stays on the LCD screen for the stipulated delay time. DELAY2 (is a 2.5 seconds delay) is used to provide the necessary debouncing effect for the keypad. (A push-button switch or any kind of mechanical switch has a bouncing effect. This effect has to be nullified either with a capacitor or with some tweaks inside the software – for example – a 1 or 2 seconds delay after a key press is scanned)
CHECK_PASSWORD – is the subroutine to compare user input password (5 digits) with the actually stored password in the program. Comparison is made digit by digit by selecting each digit from stored password with the help of DPTR and loading it to Accumulator (with MOVC A,@A+DPTR). Each digit loaded to the accumulator is then compared with the corresponding digit stored as user input (in address locations 16D to 164D) by loading them one by one to register R1. Digits are compared by X-OR ing them with command XRL A,@R1. Based on the outcome of the comparison, this subroutine has commands written to either allow access (and turn ON relay) or to not allow access and display an “Access Denied” message on the LCD screen.
So that’s all about the Password-based Security System using 8051. We hope you have understood the circuit, it’s working, and the program really well. If you have any doubts, please ask in the comments section. If you would like to learn more interesting and similar projects like this electronic password lock, take a look at the following security system/lock projects.
RFID-based Security System using 8051 – is a security system very similar to Digital Door Lock or Electronic Code Lock in concept. The major difference in this project is that unique RFID Tags are used to identify authorized personnel (instead of keypad and password). An RFID reader is interfaced to 8051 to read RFID Tags.
Digital Code Lock -Advanced -using Arduino – is a very interesting and advanced version of Digital Code Lock projects built using a keypad and Arduino. The most interesting part of this project is the “User Defined Password” option where the user can set a password himself at the time of installation of the system. This SET password at installation can be later changed/edited by pressing the “Edit Password” key.