DIY Random number generator
A random number generator using 8051 that displays a random number between 0 & 99 is shown in this article. The circuit itself is very simple and may not find any applications in serious embedded projects and this article is just an illustration. The circuit is based on AT89S51 microcontroller, two seven segment LED displays, two transistors and few passive components.
List of components
- Microcontroller (AT89S51) – 1 nos
- Push button switches – 2nos
- 7-segment display – 2 nos
- Transistor (2N2222) – 2 nos
- Resistor (100 ohm) – 10 nos
- Resistor (8.2k ohm) – 1 nos
- Resistor (10k ohm) – 1 nos
- Capacitor (10uF/10V) – 2 nos
The two seven segment LED displays are multiplexed together and their data lines are connected to Port0 of the microcontroller. Transistors Q1 and Q2 drive the corresponding displays D1 and D2. The driving signals for there transistors are obtained from P1.1 and P1.2. Push button switch S1, capacitor C1 and resistor R10 forms a debouncing reset circuit. Resistor R9, capacitor C2 and pushbutton switch S2 will provide an active low hardware interrupt signal at INTO (pin12) whenever S2 is pressed. Here also R9 and C2 are meant for debouncing.
After power ON the display will show blank and when push button S2 is pressed the display will show a random number between 0 and 99. For another try, you have to press the reset switch and then switch S2. If you need a single digit setup only, then remove the display D2 and its associated components. Everything else is the same.
ORG 000H SJMP MAIN ORG 003H // sets the starting address for the ISR ACALL ISR // calls the ISR subroutine when S2 is pressed RETI // return from interrrupt MAIN:SETB IP.0 // this part sets the initial conditions SETB TCON.0 SETB IE.0 SETB IE.7 MOV P0,#00000000B MOV P1,#00000000B MOV DPTR,#LUT // moves the starting address of LUT to DPTR LABEL:MOV R6,#99D // this part generates the random number LOOP:MOV A,R6 DJNZ R6,LOOP SJMP LABEL ISR: MOV A,R6 // Subroutine ISR displays the current random number MOV B,#10D DIV AB SETB P1.2 ACALL DISPLAY MOV P0,A ACALL DELAY MOV A,B CLR P1.2 SETB P1.1 ACALL DISPLAY MOV P0,A ACALL DELAY CLR P1.1 SJMP ISR RET DELAY: MOV R3,#02H // this subroutine creates 1mS delay for switching the displays DEL1: MOV R2,#0FAH DEL2: DJNZ R2,DEL2 DJNZ R3,DEL1 RET DISPLAY: MOVC A,@A+DPTR // produces the digit drive pattern for the current digit in A RET LUT: DB 3FH // Look up table DB 06H DB 5BH DB 4FH DB 66H DB 6DH DB 7DH DB 07H DB 7FH DB 6FH END
About the program
The first part of the program is the portion labelled MAIN which sets the initial conditions and the interrupt parameters. The next part is the loop named LABEL which loads 99D to register R6 then decrements it by 1 until 0 and then repeats the cycle again. This is the part which generates the random number. Every time R6 is decremented the resultant value is moved to accumulator A. Next part is the interrupt service routine which is written as a subroutine named ISR. Whenever there is an interrupt at INT0 (push button S2 is pressed), the ISR is called.
The ISR performs necessary mathematical manipulations on the content of A in order to split out the two digits and then proceeds to show it on the display. Subroutine DELAY produces roughly 1ms delay for switching the displays. Subroutine DISPLAY adds the current value in A with the address stored in DPTR (starting address of LUT) and moves the target content to A. The result will be the digit drive pattern for the current digit in A.