Fire alarm circuit

Description.

Here is a simple fire alarm circuit based on a Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) and lamp pair for sensing the fire. The alarm works by sensing the smoke produced during fire. The circuit produces an audible alarm when the fire breaks out with smoke.

When there is no smoke the light from the bulb will be directly falling on the LDR. The LDR resistance will be low and so the voltage across it (below 0.6V). The transistor will be OFF and nothing happens. When there is sufficient smoke to mask the light from falling on LDR, the LDR resistance increases and so do the voltage across it. Now the transistor will switch to ON. This gives power to the IC1 and it outputs 5V. This powers the tone generator IC UM66 (IC2)  to play a music. This music will be amplified by IC3 (TDA 2002) to drive the speaker. Resistor R6 is meant for protecting the transistor when R4 is turned towards low resistance values. Resistor R2 and R1 forms a feedback network for the TDA2002 and C1 couples the feed back signal from the junction of R1 & R2 to the inverting input of the same IC.

The diode D1 and D2 in combination drops 1.4 V to give the rated voltage (3.5V ) to UM66. UM66 cannot withstand more than 4V.

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Circuit diagram with Parts list.

fire alarm

Fire alarm circuit

Notes.

  • The speaker can be a 32Ω tweeter.
  • POT R4 can be used to adjust the sensitivity of the alarm.
  • POT R3 can be used for varying the volume of the alarm.
  • Any general purpose NPN transistor(like BC548,BC148,2N222) can be used for Q1.
  • The circuit can be powered from a 9V battery or a 9V DC power supply.
  • Instead of bulb you can use a bright LED with a 1K resistor series to it.

Power supply for the circuit.

A well regulated power supply is essential for this circuit because even slight variations in the supply voltage could alter the biasing of the transistor used in the fire sensing section and this could seriously affect the circuit’s performance.

9V power supply

9V/500mA power supply circuit

A regulated 9V/500mA power supply that can be used for powering the basic fire alarm circuit and its modified versions is shown above. Transformer T1 is a 230V primary, 12V secondary, 500mA step down transformer. D1 is a 1A bridge which performs the job of rectification. Capacitor C1 filters the rectifier output and C2 is the AC by-pass capacitor. IC1 (7809) is a 9V fixed positive voltage regulator. The output of the rectifier+filter section is connected to the input of 7805 and a regulated steady 9V is obtained at its output. S1 is the ON/OFF switch. F1 is a 500mA safety fuse.

 

Relay version of the circuit.

Here the above fire alarm circuit is modified to operate a relay when the fire breaks out. The usage of relay makes the circuit able to switch high power warning devices like alarms, bells,beacon lights etc that operates from the mains.

Relay version of the circuit

Two additional transistors are used with the basic fire sensing circuitry (consisting of Q1, R4, R5 and L1) to attain the target. Whenever the fire breaks out the transistor Q1 is switched ON. The collector voltage of Q1 drops to 0.2V and the transistor Q2 gets switched OFF. This makes the collector voltage of Q2 rise towards 9V and this result in the switching ON of transistor Q3. The relay connected at the collector of Q3 is activated and the load connected through the relay contact is driven. Resistors R7 and R8 limits the collector current of Q1 and Q2 respectively. D1 is a freewheeling diode which protects Q3 from the voltage spikes induced when the relay is switched. Resistor R9 controls the base current of transistor Q3 (2N2222).

 

Show Comments

126 thoughts on “Fire alarm circuit

  1. hillary

    that is very nice circuit diagram infact iam doing aproject which more related to it and i would to request you to send me “a fire alarm system with a sprinkler water circuit diagram” based on LDR,urgent pliz

    Reply
    • Seetharaman

      The TDA2002 IC pin no4 will be at half the power supply (say around 4.5 volts in the above circuit) to avoid this DC flowing through speaker a blocking capacitor is used such that only the audio signal present at Pin no4 alone is fed to the speaker.

      Reply
  2. Talaviya Mehulbhai Balubhai

    I like this information and my problem why rasister connected in circuit example:-R6 1K but why not connected 5K

    Reply
    • Smith Watson

      Hey Bini did u get the project report for this circuit. It wil b great if u help me with it.. Thanks..

      Reply
  3. amira

    can u suggest any other ic to replace TDA2002 ,as TDA2002 does not exist in proteus software for my circuit simulation …thank u for ur help

    Reply
  4. ee student

    how if i still want the speaker as the output but at the same time want relay in my circuit?i’m doing this as my project

    Reply
  5. Michael Zurg

    Thank you so much for this amazing circuit .
    This site is breathtaking.

    I want to use a Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR) instead of
    NPN Transistor . What changes should be made to the circuit in this case?

    Email me ur recommendation or reply to my comment .

    Thanks guys.

    Reply
  6. harikishan

    hii,
    Guys i am going to make the fire alarm project.and i have no large idea for make this project. so i requested to all the internet users and you have any information of this topic so please share me yours information and help me this project.
    thanks
    Reply

    Reply
  7. sulthana parvin

    I WANT A PROJECT RELATED TO THE USAGE OF DISPLACEMENT SENSOR IN TRANSPORT
    WITH CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

    Reply
  8. vikki yadav

    hi,
    Guys i am going to make the fire alarm project.and i have no large idea for make this project. so i requested to all the internet users and you have any information of this topic so please share me yours information and help me this project.
    thanks

    Reply
  9. doreen iortsor

    Please i need an alternative for the um66 since it is difficult to find. I wil appreciate if you can help me out because this is my project topic. Thanks.

    Reply
    • seetharaman

      Hi Doreen you can use electronic peizo alarm from Pin 3 IC1 and 2 by observing the polarity through 100 ohms resistance feed the junction of Piezo buzzer and 100 ohms resistance to Pot R3.

      Reply
  10. ashish butola

    i am going to make a project on the fire alram so i want that you should guid me to make this project. i am in confusion that what requriment is for the fire alram so please help. i need to submit this project on next week. i hope that you will short out my problem.

    Reply
  11. Abdulrahman f.c.e(t)bichi kano

    Helo guys am this project now.and i ned detail information on this components use in this project? Thanks alot it urgent pls

    Reply
  12. Seetharaman

    Hi John you can use 4nos of 1N4007 in bridge formation. (use 1N4007 for each diode shown in the bride circuit with correct polarity)

    Reply
  13. Olawale kabir

    please i dont no if there will ba an alternative for UM66 in fire alarm circuit please help me it is orgent please. this my mail (olawalekabir1@yahoo.com )God bless u
    .

    Reply
  14. amarjot

    Iam not able to locate a circuit which tells me the wiring of an industrial smoke and heat detector system
    can all detectors be wired in parallel/series or what tis the single line diagram illustrating this.
    how many detctors can we install in one zone and how are they connected to each other ??

    Reply
  15. Mohammed Afzal

    Hi Mr Qalvin,
    Am dealing with the fire alarm Installation and i have some Queries about connection of the Manual Pull station.
    In our Project we are using NBG -12x Addressable Pull station and the Wiring System in the Catalogue Describes About SLC -ve And +ve of the Fire alarm Panel And the next addressable Device.
    And the cable we Ordered is they have +ve and -ve wire i dont understand in the described cable which one acts a SLC Wire.

    Reply
  16. Qalvin K

    Hi guys, am a student in Electrical & Electronic Eng. Post your questions on fire alarm systems, i’ll gladly answer.

    Reply
  17. gunashekar

    We have three cherrytech made fire alaram pannel which doesn’t work even one. please help regarding rectify the problem

    Thank u Regards

    Reply
  18. nash

    hi!i am electronic engineering student.
    i need details info and circuits diagram of ‘smoke detector with auto water sprinkler’.
    mail me.thank you.

    Reply
  19. SEMAKUWA PONGEZA

    Am a final year student pursuing bachelor of science in electrical engineering. Am in need of a software which i will use in simulation of my final year project on June 2012. The project deal with designing of electrical installation and fire alarm system in a seven floor building. Please post Any suggestion or advice in moprocot@gmail.com. Thanks

    Reply
  20. nsumba geofrey

    i would like to inquire if there can be another replacement for the IC UM66 because i have failed to find one please in need urgent help

    Reply
  21. NYAME EPHRAIM MEJAME

    I am an electrical engineer working with COMA TRANS S.A.DOUALA CAMEROON.Thank you for this program very much god bless you. will be great full if the diagram of an electronic rectifier of an alternator of about 120kva can be sent to me thanks

    Reply
  22. Abumbe francis

    Hi am a student of electrical electronics engineering with power/machines as my option,pls i need workable power project topics,to construct as my final project.pls u can aid me by sending the topics to my email,,abumbefrancis@yahoo.com.

    Reply
  23. abhishek

    fire alarm can be made by using only the starter of the tube light…..its the simplest fire alarm ckt
    it reqire 1 starter,speaker and a source of power supply

    Reply
  24. kanika

    sir,
    iam doing this fire alarm as the miniproject.so, i
    want brief explanation in this aspect.
    pls send me on my id.
    i need it urgently

    Reply
  25. vinos

    i m b.tech from the stream electronics & communication. It was my mini project. Thanxxxxxxxxxxx a lot , bcz i hv understood completely this circuit. Now i m very happy.

    Reply
  26. methyllx

    i would like to have more information on this circuit as in the schematic circuit and how the circuit is connected…thanks

    Reply
  27. fire alarm circuit.

    Hi! i am an electrical technology student
    i need some innovated projects to help…
    so please i request you to send me the projects via the e-mail which given below and thank you so much!
    tesfaye_assena@yahoo.com

    Reply
  28. Seetharaman

    Hi Kart it is just a smoke detector not the temperature detector. the proverb is where smoke is there fire is there. when the smoke passes through the light path between lamp and LDR, it resistance value changes it is detected by the electronics and through relay it can give alarm or the relay contacts can operate a solenoid which sprinkles water during fire.

    Reply
  29. KART

    HI I AM GOING TO TRY THIS CIRCUIT BUT I WAS WONDERING IF I COULD CORRESPOND WITH ANYONE DURING MY EXPERIMENT TO CLEAR ANY DOUBTS. I WOULD BE MOST OBLIGED IF ANY ONE COULD SPARE SOME TIME OF YOURS. I HAVE BASIC KNOWLEDGE ABOUT SOME OF THE COMPONENTS USED. IF I COULD GET THE PROJECT REPORT IT WOULD BE VERY HELPFUL.THANK YOU

    Reply
  30. padmakumar

    iam an ECE student plz mail the ckt diagram of “FIRE DETECTOR WITH AUTOMATIC WATER SPRINKLER SYSTEM” with project report .. urgent plz (mail not publish)

    Reply
  31. Seetharaman

    Hi Hanister any audio amplifier IC capable of delivering around 2 to 3 watts of power will do. This IC is a simple 5 lead package with heat sink tab similar to TO220 casing, easy to fit heat sink.

    Reply
  32. siva sankar

    hi i am an ece student
    i want some new innovative projects….
    so i request you to send me thr projects via email given below
    email:katreddi.sivasankar@gmail.com

    Reply
  33. subodh

    hi I am electronics engineer want to know working priciple and circuit diagram of fire alarm system.Also let me know
    components used in this system .Thanks

    Reply
  34. Lacoste

    hi?i’m called Lacoste and i’m in final year electronics and telecommunication engineering.i want to do my final project on fire alarm detector,can u plz send the report for fire alarm,and some informations.thx God bless u.

    Reply
  35. NITIN

    HI, I M A STUDENT OF ELECTRONIC I WANT TO INFORMATION ABOUT FIRE ARAM THEORY,CONCTRION,WORKING SO PLZ,U WILL SEND ME INFORMATION OF FIRE ALARM

    Reply
  36. Franklin

    hello, thanks 4 ur efforts. pls i need you 2 send me the details of this Fire alarm and 2km fm transmitter:how they work and all the principles involved. i want to do it for my final year project

    Reply
  37. Seetharaman

    Hi Ban it is a pentawatt package IC. But you can use any audio IC here with suitable PCB. TBA810, LM386, TDA2822, TBA820, any chip which can work with 9 volt and gives an audio output of 1 to 5watts to 8 ohms speaker.

    Reply
  38. seetharaman

    Hi Shubham you can use. the light should be always falling on the LDR R5 whenever smome passes between light and LDR the light ray will get interrupted and the alarm will get activated.

    Reply
  39. Timmy

    which Ic or component can i make use instead of UM66 in a fire alarm circuit please I need the reply B=before 24hrs.
    thanks God Bless

    Reply
  40. Androux

    which Ic or component can i make use instead of UM66 in a fire alarm circuit please I need the reply before 24hrs.
    thanks God Bless

    Reply
  41. Androux

    which Ic or component can i make use instead of UM66 please I need the reply B=before 24hrs.
    thanks God Bless

    Reply
  42. rohith

    haii am an ectronics student i want to know more about fire alarm so plz send me detail report of this subject .plz heip us.

    Reply
  43. seetharaman

    Hi Syarief this fire alarm is based on smoke detection principle. A light beam falls on LDR, so its resistance is low hence Q1 cannot conduct. once smoke obstructs the light, the intensity of light falling on LDR reduces hence its internal resistance increases. Q1 gets the bias inturn regulator IC1 gets the supply. Regulator IC feeds the supply to tone generator IC its out put is amplified by TDA2002 ic Hence the loud music from the smoke detector indicates that there is smoke. but smoke is normally due to fire.

    Reply
  44. syarief

    hye…im a student of electrical and electronic engenering..can u send me your fire alarm report..i need the detail..tq..

    Reply
  45. yannick noah

    hi,i m verry happy for your support provided ,so ,i’ll like to get all notes concerning fire alarm circuit ,in oder to improve my reseach .thank u

    Reply
  46. saheed shittu

    please,i need a digital calendar circuit diagram project that show days, date,months and years, using discrete components with its operation principle and detail about circuit diagram.send it to my e-mail.thank you very much.

    Reply
  47. raza

    hey i implement this circuit today but i was failed to do it properly..!there was a little beep in the beggning but then it stopped.can any body send me schematic diagram of this Circuit?

    Reply
  48. om prakash

    hi,i am a student of electronics . please send me your project report on fire alarm .i really want 2 study that ..so plzz..e-mail me ..

    Reply
  49. kaleem

    hello sir, i m electronics engineer from pakistan, i want to make a circuit for ups who’s capacity should be atleast 1000watts.
    Regards……..kaleem butt
    cell # 00923457866765

    Reply
  50. demo lynn

    hi, i m an electronic student, i m finding the fire alarm system using IC CD4049, so i would like you to send me some information on how to design a smoke sensor, i m doing my project now & wanna do better fire alarm system, pls send me some details,it’s very important bcauz my presentation is on Nov 11, 2009, waiting ur reply
    thx

    Reply
  51. mubasahr

    hi this is mubasahr i whould like to make a circuit which is time dependent like when we turn on the electric supply alarm will turn on only for 20 seconds and after 20 seconds alarm turn off

    Reply
  52. amaal

    Dear Sir/Madam
    I am an electronic student and i would like you to send me some information on how to design a smoke alarm sensor.
    Very Important ( Please do not publish my email)
    Thanks

    Reply
  53. M.Sri Lisha

    Industry or home already has lights. So does the LDR gets affected and what is the role of LDR. Smoke alarm using LDR and bulb and preset what is the significant role of ecah. Please mail to my email-id.

    Reply
  54. Pingback: Smoke Detector for Fire Alarm | Skema Rangkaian|Electronic Schematic Circuits Diagram

  55. neo

    can u please provide me with the circuit diag. of the detector which includes diff another alarms along with the fire alarm….plz mail me…

    Reply
  56. kev

    Dear Sir/Madam
    I am an electronic student and i would like you to send me some information on how to design a smoke alarm sensor.
    Very Important ( Please do not publish my email)
    Thanks
    Kev

    Reply
  57. ollydee

    Pls I need 1000watts and 2000watts comprehensive circuit diagram for an inverter/ups. Thanks. God bless you.

    Reply
  58. twits4twats

    Sagar
    Yes you can if you so desired. It would be a bit pointless though as the purpose of using a pot and not resistor is so that you can adjust the signal.

    Reply
  59. yashar

    i am an electrical/electronic student,and i am very good at reading circuit and constuction,please i want you to send the fire alarm circuit that made by micro .

    Reply
  60. matjopile Tseliso

    hi there! i want 2 build a magnetically levitation train. can u send me more details about the construction. i want 2 use solenoid and permanent bar magnets. hoping 2 recieve it in my mail provided 2 u. thanx

    Reply
  61. Christian Ehifoh

    i am an electrical/electronic student,and i am very good at reading circuit and constuction,please i want you to send the fire alarm circuit and its working principle,so i can construct one.thanks.hoping to recieve it in my mail provided to you.

    Reply

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