Electronic communication uses electronic circuits to transmit, process, and receive information between two or more locations. The basic components of an Electronic communication system include a transmitter, a communication medium or channel, a receiver and noise. Information is transmitted into the system in analog or digital form, it is then processed and decoded by the receiver.
Outlined below are some basic terminologies In Electronic Communication System:
Information needs to be converted into digital form before it can be transmitted electronically. A signal is that information which has been converted into a digital format. Signals are divided into two forms:
- Analog Signals: These signals have continuous variations of voltage and current. For instance, human voice is an analog signal.
- Digital Signals: The signals that are transmitted via discreet stepwise values such as 0 and 1. A human voice recorded on an mp3 becomes a digital signal.
A communication channel is the medium by which a signal is transmitted from the sender to the receiver. It may be a simple copper wire, or it may even be a satellite system.
The transducer is a device that converts one form of energy into another form of energy. In electronic communication, Transducer is mainly a device that converts one form of physical variables such as temperature, pressure and force etc. into a corresponding electrical signal and provides it as an output. In simple words, a mechanical input is provided to a Transducer, and the Transducer converts the mechanical input into electrical energy. The simplest example of a Transducer is the receiver of our phone. A mechanical input, our voice in the form of sound waves, is provided to the phone which in turn converts it into an electrical signal and transmits it. Other common examples include loud-speakers and antennas.
A receiver is a device that receives the signals sent/ transmitted by the senders and decodes them into a form that is understandable by the humans. A common example of a receiver is the television.
In electronic communication, Attenuation refers to the reduction in the strength of the analog or digital signal as it is transmitted over a communication medium or channel. Attenuation often occurs when signals are transmitted over long distances.
An amplitude of the signal refers to the strength of the signal.
Sometimes when the distance between the sender of the signal and the receiver of the signal is too large, the amplitude of the signals drop significantly. To remedy the problem of weak signals, amplification of the signals is carried out to rejuvenate their strength.
Amplification is the process to strengthening the amplitude of the signals using an electronic circuit.
Bandwidth describes the range of frequency over which a signal has been transmitted.
Modulation refers to the act of adding information to an electronic or optical waveform. The information may be added by altering the frequency phase of the waveform, its amplitude or more.
Modulation is needed because most of the time information is generated and transmitted via signals having low frequencies. A low-frequency signal is highly susceptible to attenuation and therefore it cannot be transferred to long distant locations. In order to rectify this problem, the original carrier wave having a low frequency is superimposed upon a high-frequency carrier wave. This process is known as modulation. AM and FM are both examples of Modulation.
Demodulation reverses modulation. It takes a modulated signal and extracts the original message out of it.
The job of the repeater is to extend the range of the communication systems by amplifying the signals. The repeaters act as both the sender and the receiver in the communication system. A weak signal is received at the repeater which is then amplified and re-transmitted.
Any electrical signal that interferes with the information signal is known as noise. It can come from a variety of sources in the environment such as the rain, hailstorms or thunderstorms etc. Noise is always present in the system, it can be diminished but it can never be completely eliminated. In some instances, noise may even be generated by the receiver and hinder the demodulation process.
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